Description: Exterior of South Boston High School. Headmaster Jerome Wynegar in front of school. Students enter school. South Boston environs. Crowd of South Boston residents gathered on the street. Rolling shots taken from news van driving down the streets of South Boston. Anti- busing and racist graffiti: “Stop Forced Busing” “White Power” “Never Nigger”
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/08/1976
Description: Debate on the success of school desegregation, moderated by Jim Lehrer. Filmed in the auditorium of Dunbar High School in Washington D.C. Lehrer explains outline and rules for debate. Busing advocates include Arthur Flemming (Chairman of the US Commission on Civil Rights), Murray Saltzman, Frankie Freeman of US Commission on Civil Rights. Flemming begins debate with opening statement by the US Commission on Civil Rights. Lino Graglia of the Neighborhood Schools Association makes opening remark for anti-busing representative group. Sue Mills, Herbert Walberg of Neighborhood Schools Association. Coproduced by WGBH and WETA.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 11/15/1976
Description: Audio goes in and out. Hyde Park environs. Uniformed police are stationed outside of Hyde Park High School, including horse mounted officers. Students exit the school. African American students board buses. Buses depart with police motorcycle escort. Pam Bullard interviews Hyde Park High School teachers Terry Gaskill and Hugh Mullen discuss racial tension inside the school. The students have returned to school after a recent racial disturbance. Mullen says that the school was quiet; that the students segregated themselves along racial lines. Mullen says that a small group of students is responsible for the trouble at the school. Both teachers agree that the students do not act up when the police are present in the school. Tape 1 of 2.
0:58:01: Visual: Shots of a black dog on the porch of a house on Westminster Street, near Hyde Park High School; of a police horse standing on the grass while a police officer talks to a resident; of the exterior of Hyde Park High School. Police are stationed outside of Hyde Park High School. A police bus is parked in front of the school. Three police officers stand on the steps of the school, while one police officer directs traffic on the street. A police officer pulls up on a motorcycle. 1:00:44: V: A line of school buses pulls up Central Street and stops beside Hyde Park High School. Two mounted police officers survey the scene from the intersection. Several officers are stationed on the steps of the school. Cars pass by slowly. Another police officer arrives on a motorcycle. 1:05:19: V: Shot of the exterior of Hyde Park High School. African American and white students exit the school. African American students walk toward the school buses and board them. Police and the media survey the scene. 1:09:56: V: Groups of police officers appear in the front entrances of the school. Three of the buses pull away, escorted by police on motorcycles. The buses travel up Metropolitan Avenue. Three more buses follow, accompanied by a police officer on a motorcycle. Groups of students, school officials, and police remain on the steps of the school. The last bus pulls away, with a police motorcycle escort. Police officers exit the school and walk down the steps. Groups of people remain on the steps. Close up shot of a white woman police officer on a horse. A few police officers walk away from the school. 1:13:27: V: Pam Bullard sets up an interview with two Hyde Park teachers in front of the school. Terry Gaskill is African American and Hugh Mullen is white. Vehicle noise makes their voices inaudible at beginning of interview. Gaskill advocates an after school program or gathering place for both white and African American youth in Boston. He notes that African American and white students gather on the streets after school; that a group of angry white youth kicked his car last year as he drove to Hyde Park High School. Mullen says that the day went smoothly; that the school staff had to break up groups of students in order to get them into homeroom in the morning; that the strong police presence made a difference; that the police did not interfere with school activities. Gaskill says that the students were tense at the beginning of the day; that the atmosphere was quiet. Bullard asks about racial tension among the students. Mullen says that the students segregated themselves along racial lines today; that students of different races had been mixing somewhat before Friday's racial disturbance. Gaskill says that the first day of school was calm; that racial tension began to build up among the students as the week progressed. Mullen agrees that the first few days of school were quiet. He says that there is a small group of students who make trouble; that the situation at the school will not get better unless they can get rid of the small group of troublemakers. Mullen adds that the school has a large freshman class this year; that he had thought the presence of the younger students would help to ease the tensions of the previous year; that teachers will not be able to assess the situation until the police pull out of the school; that the students do not dare act out while the police are present. Gaskill agrees that students will not act out while police are in the building.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/15/1976
Description: Boston School Committee meeting, with Mayor Kevin White in attendance, where he discusses school desegregation and states his support for the recently elected school committee. Says Judge Arthur Garrity should cede some control to that body.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 03/11/1976
Description: Exteriors of South Boston High School. South Boston environs. Large graffiti in crosswalk “Winegar [sic] we don't want you.” Black students stream off bus, walk toward front entrance. Jerome Wynegar stands by. Plainclothes US marshals with armbands and walkie-talkies. Police keep press photographers behind line.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/08/1976
Description: Kim Reid , a student at Brighton High School, sits with a group of students in a classroom. The students talk about school activities and look at yearbooks while discussing a movie they saw on television. Another group of students in the classroom also look at yearbooks. This tape also includes footage of Reid exiting Brighton High School and boarding a school bus outside.
1:00:00: Visual: Kim Reid (Brighton High School student) sits with a three white and Hispanic students in a classroom at Brighton High School. They talk about ordering sweatshirts to sell at school. The students talk about scheduling meetings after school. Another student points out that Kim needs to know about meetings in advance because she needs to arrange transportation home. The students talk about choosing a theme for their class night. A female student seated across from Kim looks at a yearbook. A racially diverse group of boys is seated near Kim's group. A white teacher arranges files and papers at her desk. Kim's group continues to talk to one another. Kim's group looks at a yearbook. Close-up shot of Kim. The students talk about the upcoming prom. Shots of a girl turning pages of the yearbook. Kim opens the yearbook in front of her. Kim says that she knows fewer people now than she did in the ninth grade. The group identifies and talks about the people in the yearbook. The group of boys also look at yearbooks. 1:08:24: V: Kim walks over to the teacher's desk. She looks for a book on the teacher's desk. The crew sets up a shot of Kim walking across the room with a book. Kim sits down with her group. Kim and the other students talk about a TV movie. Shots of the two other girls in Kim's group. Shots of the group of boys talking to one another. 1:14:00: V: Shots of the exterior of Brighton High School; of school buses waiting on Warren Street in front of the school. An African American male student jokes around with the camera crew. Kim descends the stairs toward the buses with a group of African American and Asian American students. The students wave and talk to the camera crew as they board the buses. A police officer stands against the fence on the sidewalk. Kim walks toward her bus. The camera crew does a three takes of Kim and other students boarding the buses.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 01/15/1985
Description: Hope Kelly reviews the history of school desegregation in Boston. She notes that many critics cite the absence of middle-class and white students as a reason for the continued failure of the Boston Public Schools. She focuses on the Timilty Middle School in Boston, a magnet school with successful reading and math programs for its students. Kelly interviews teacher William Moran and principle Shirley Gonsalves about the school and its programs. Moran says that the students are successful. He adds that many come from disadvantaged backgrounds. Gonsalves talks about the benefits of school desegregation. Kelly reports that the Timilty School was named a National School of Excellence in 1989. Following the edited story is additional b-roll footage of students and teachers in classrooms at the Timilty School.
1:00:07: Visual: Shot of a school bus door closing. Shots of a school bus outside of the Timilty Middle School; of students on the bus; of white and African American students exiting the Timilty Middle School; of students boarding a bus outside of the school. Shots of African American and white students in a hallway of the school. Hope Kelly reports that busing for school desegregation began seventeen years ago in Boston; that busing was viewed as a way to bring equal opportunity to all students. Kelly notes that busing drove many middle-class white and African American parents away from the school system. Kelly reports that critics cite a lack of middle-class students as a reason for the continued failure of Boston Public Schools. V: Footage of William Moran (Timilty School) being interviewed. Moran says that all students can learn. Kelly reports that Moran grew up in the South End and Roxbury; that Moran attended Boston Public Schools and went to college. V: Shots of Moran walking through a corridor in the Timilty School; of Moran speaking to three students in the doorway of a classroom. Kelly reports that Moran is the seventh-grade coordinator at the Timilty Middle School; that Moran attended the Timilty School twenty years ago. Kelly reports that the Timilty Middle School ranks first city-wide in reading; that the Timilty Middle School is second city-wide in mathematics. Kelly notes that the students at the Timilty School do not come from advantaged backgrounds. V: Shots of a white teacher teaching students of diverse races in a well decorated classroom. Shots of the students in the classroom. Footage of Moran saying that students at the Timilty School low-income families; that many of the students live in housing projects. Moran says that the students come from disadvantaged neighborhoods across the city; that the school is a city-wide school. Kelly reports that most of the students at the Timilty School are non-white and poor. V: Shots of students walking in a corridor of the Timilty School. Footage of Shirley Gonsalves (Timilty School) being interviewed by Kelly. Gonsalves says that race and class are not the determining factors among the school's students. Gonsalves says that the school can do nothing about the relative poverty of its students. Kelly reports that Gonsalves is the assistant principal at the Timilty School; that she has worked in the Boston Public School System for seventeen years. V: Shot of Gonsalves walking through a corridor and up a set of stairs with a student. Kelly reports that Gonsalves began teaching in Boston during the first year of school desegregation. V: Footage of Gonsalves being interviewed. Gonsalves says that she grew up in the rural South where busing was used to maintain segregated schools. Gonsalves says that she rode a bus to school from the age of six to the age of eighteen. Shots of students walking in a corridor at the Timilty School. Kelly reports that there are low numbers of white students in the Boston Public School System; that 11% of students at the Timilty School are white. Kelly reports that Gonsalves believes that school integration has been a success. V: Shots of a white student entering a classroom at the Timilty School; of a white teacher standing with two African American students in a hallway. Footage of Gonsalves being interviewed by Kelly. Gonsalves says that students attended schools in their own neighborhoods with students of their own race before school integration. Gonsalves says that students were not exposed to other students of different backgrounds and from different neighborhoods. Gonsalves says that students need to learn about people of different backgrounds. Shots of a white teacher teaching to a class of middle school students; of an African American male student sitting at a desk in the classroom. Shots of other students in classrooms; of an African American female student writing on a chalkboard; of an African American boy reading a book at his desk. Shot of the white teacher teaching to students in the classroom. Kelly reports that the Timilty School is a magnet school; that classes are smaller at the Timilty School; that the schoolday at the Timilty School is 1.5 hours longer on four of five days per week. Kelly reports that the waiting list to enter the sixth grade class at the Timilty School had 200 names. Kelly reports that the Timilty School was named a National School of Excellence in 1989. V: Shot of Gonsalves and a student walking in the corridor.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 03/22/1991
Description: Pam Bullard reports on the Tobin Elementary School, which is located near the Mission Hill Housing Project.Bullard reports that 75 white children are bused into the Tobin school with no problems. Interviews with students and teachers talking about how much they like the school. Bullard reports that Charlie Gibbons, the principal, encourages teachers to develop innovative programs for students. During the report Principal Gibbons was in Puerto Rico learning about the schools there to better be able to serve the Latino students at his school. Bullard notes that the school has a good atmosphere and enjoys a good rapport with the community.
9:50:07: Visual: Shots of street sign for Tobin Ct.; of the Mission Hill Housing Project. Pam Bullard reports that the Mission Hill Housing Project is in one of Boston's toughest neighborhoods; that racial fighting occurred there two weeks before school opened; that the housing project is in the heart of a depressed neighborhood. Bullard reports that the Tobin Elementary School is located near the housing project. V: Footage of an African American male student (Derek) saying that he has attended the Tobin School for four years; that he knows all of the teachers and gets along with them; that the school is special because of the teachers, the kids, and the field trips. A white male student (Richard) says that Derek is his friend; that he likes the Tobin school; that he has fun taking the bus everyday; that he has met a lot of new people. Bullard reports that Charlie Gibbons (principal, Tobin School) and his assistant are in Puerto Rico; that they are learning about the Puerto Rican school system in order to understand the needs of Spanish-speaking students; that Gibbons and his assistant are paying for their own trips. V: Shots of Gibbons' office; of a button reading "I go to the best - Tobin School, Roxbury"; of a thank-you note written to Gibbons from the students. Bullard reports that the Tobin School has extensive reading and physical education programs set up with Boston University; that there is a program for dental care set up with the Harvard Dental school; that the Tobin School has one of the city's best bilingual programs; that the students receive a lot of individual attention. Bullard reports that Gibbons and the teachers at the Tobin set up most of these programs themselves. V: Footage of student reading Spanish; of a student writing on a chalkboard; of bilingual posters in a classroom. Footage of a teacher at a chalkboard; of students in classroom. A white female teacher says that the students respond well to the school's programs; that she tries to give the students individual attention; that she likes the students and the parents at the Tobin. Footage of children playing learning games. An African American female teacher says that she agrees with Gibbons that the Tobin is the best school in Boston; that the Tobin has a warm atmosphere, a good faculty and a lot of support from the community. An African American male student says that he likes the Tobin because he learns things. Bullard reports that the Tobin school is located in a predominantly African American neighborhood; that 75 white students have been bused in with no problems; that students and teachers like the school very much. V: Footage of children playing on a field outside of the school. The Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Help is visible.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 03/26/1976
Description: Some sound dropout at the beginning of the tape. Pam Bullard's 1978 review of school desegregation in Boston. The review focuses on the effects of desegregation on South Boston High School and the Joseph Lee School. Bullard reports that attendance is low at South Boston High School, but the school atmosphere and programs have improved. Bullard reports that the Joseph Lee School is a good example of a successfully integrated elementary school. The story includes footage of Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston) and interviews with Ruth Batson (African American community activist), Jerome Wynegar (headmaster, South Boston High School), David Finnegan (Boston School Committee), Robert Peterkin (headmaster, English High School). Bullard also interviews teachers and students at the Lee School and South Boston High School. The report ends with footage of students at the Lee School performing in a play of "The Wizard of Oz."
1:00:02: Visual: Shot of Boston skyline. Footage of Mayor Kevin White on September 9, 1974 calling on Boston residents to come together to make busing work. Footage of buses pulling up in front of South Boston High School on the first day of school in 1974. A crowd of antibusing protesters has gathered outside of the high school. The crowd jeers at the buses. Shots of the Boston Public Gardens. Footage of Ruth Batson (African American community activist) describing Boston as a "racist, violent city." She says that the violence stemming from school desegregation has spilled over into the streets and housing projects. Footage of police marching in formation on Bunker Hill Street in Charlestown. A large crowd is gathered outside of the Bunker Hill Housing Project. Pam Bullard reports that violence and racial hatred erupted in Boston when a federal court ordered the desegregation of schools in 1974. She notes that President Gerald Ford was forced to put the 82nd Airborne division on alert, in preparation for duty on the streets of Boston. Bullard reports that the toughest neighborhoods are quiet three years later; that African American and white children attend school together without incident. V: Shots of a lone police officer outside of South Boston High School; of African American and white children entering an elementary school. 1:01:39: Bullard reports that the effects of school desegregation will not be known for years; that some inconclusive studies have been made. V: Footage of African American and white students in an integrated elementary school classroom. Bullard notes that resistance to school desegregation in Boston has been overcome. V: Shots of a busy street in South Boston; of a young white boy outside of a church; of two elderly white residents sitting on a stoop in South Boston; of racist graffiti on a wall. Bullard reports that the fiercest opposition to court-ordered desegregation in the north took place in South Boston; that the opposition has calmed down since 1974. Bullard notes that school buses transporting students to and from South Boston High School are still accompanied by a police escort; that they are greeted by four police officers on duty at the high school. V: Shots of a police cruiser leading school buses up G Street to South Boston High School; of police officers outside South Boston High School; of African American students exiting the buses at South Boston High School. Bullard notes that metal detectors were installed at South Boston High School after the stabbing of a student three years ago. V: Footage of a student passing through a metal detector; of the halls of South Boston High School. Bullard reports that racial hatred and fear at South Boston High School have given way to a lingering uneasiness. V: Footage of a white teacher in a classroom in South Boston High School. He teaches to a classroom of eight African American and white students. Bullard notes that attendance is low at South Boston High School; that classes can be as small as four students. V: Shots of teachers teaching to very small classes at the high school. A teacher is heard saying that the official enrollment at South Boston High School is 600 students; that she estimates the enrollment to be 300 students. Shots of an African American teacher helping an African American female student at a desk; of students studying in classrooms; of teachers and students in sparsely populated classrooms. Bullard notes that the school was put under receivership by the federal court in 1975; that Jerome Wynegar (Headmaster, South Boston High School) was brought in by the court; that Wynegar and his staff have instituted many alternative programs at the school. V: Footage of Wynegar saying that there are fewer problems at South Boston High School because students are happy with the school programs. Shots of white and African American students studying in classrooms at the high school. Footage of a white female teacher saying that erratic attendance is the biggest problem at South Boston High School; that she finds herself repeating lessons for the benefit of students who were absent. Footage of Wynegar saying that South Boston High School ranks eleventh out of eighteen schools in attendance; that he though the school would rank last in attendance; that students appreciate the way they are treated at the school. Shots of students in classrooms; in the automotive shop. Footage of the white female teachers saying that alternative programs are attractive to students; that students also need to learn basic skills. 1:05:04: Bullard notes that there are divisions between those who support traditional classroom learning and those who support alternative programs. V: Shots of students in classrooms; of students in the lunchroom. Footage of an African American female student saying that South Boston High School is much better this year than in previous years; that students are getting along and are more focused on their classes. A white male student says that more students are attending school now. Another white male student says that students are getting along better. The white female teacher says that the atmosphere at the school has improved. Shots of the corridors in South Boston High School; of white and African American students playing basketball. Bullard says that there are no answers as to why the atmosphere at South Boston has improved; that innovative programs, low attendance and a wearing down of resistance to integration are all factors. V: Footage of white and African American students exiting South Boston High School; of school buses traveling down G Street away from the school. Footage of David Finnegan (Boston School Committee) saying that the community needs to realize that there are good solid programs in the Boston Public School System; that desegregation has added to the quality education provided by the schools; that the atmosphere in the schools is good, but can be improved. Bullard notes that even critics have conceded that the court-ordered magnet school programs have been good for the school system. V: Footage of African American and white students at a student art show; of the students' art projects. Bullard notes that there are opportunities in art and drama programs at the magnet schools; that there are opportunities for student internships; that there have been no racial problems at the magnet schools. Bullard reports that desegregation has been costly in financial and human terms; that the cost of the first year of desegregation was $20 million; that the second year of desegregation was $30 million; that police overtime ran up the cost of school desegregation. Bullard notes that costs have stabilized at $12 million over the past two years; that there is less of a need for police officers in the schools now. Bullard reports that Boston taxpayers have had to pay for expenses not covered by state and federal funds; that Boston taxpayers pay the highest property taxes in the nation. Bullard notes that the school budget remains at $175 million per year; that the city has lost 28,000 white students since 1972; that one expert says that 16,000 students were lost to desegregation. V: Shots of an empty classroom; of a teacher's attendance book; of a students in a sparsely populated classroom. Bullard adds that many students transferred to parochial schools, private academies and suburban schools; that many high school students dropped out. Bullard notes that the Lonegan family of South Boston refused to bus their children; that their daughter stayed out of school for a year. V: Footage of the Lonegan family. Mrs. Lonegan sits at a table in her home with her daughter Michelle and her son. Mrs. Lonegan says that she found a job making beds at a nursing home in order to pay her children's tuition at a private school. 1:09:07: Bullard reports that Christina Termini (student) lives in West Roxbury, but attends the Lee School in Dorchester. V: Footage of Termini leaving her home and walking to a bus stop. She boards the bus. Footage shot from the inside of the bus as it travels through the city. The white children on the bus sing songs. Audio of Termini's mother saying that the Lee School is ideal for Christina; that she has great confidence in the education her daughter receives at the Lee School. Shots of African American children walking to the Lee School from the Franklin Field Housing Project. Shots of a white student in French class at the Lee School; of integrated classrooms at the Lee School. Footage of a teacher saying that the children of the Lee School get along well; that racial differences are not important in the classroom. Bullard reports that attendance at the Lee School is low; that 600 students attend the school; that the school has 1,000 seats available; that white attendance could be higher. Bullard notes that the atmosphere at the school is excellent. V: Footage of the students performing "The Wizard of Oz" on stage. A young white female student says that she likes the facilities at the Lee School; that she has met a lot of friends. Footage of the white female teacher saying that she likes teaching at the Lee School. Footage of Robert Peterkin (headmaster, English High School) saying that many other urban school systems are experiencing the same problems as Boston; that desegregation has brought stability and strong programs to the system. Footage of Lee School students at their "Wizard of Oz" play. They sing "Ding, dong, the wicked witch is dead." Bullard reports that the Boston Public School System has made impressive progress since school desegregation began in 1974; that the system is no longer deliberately segregated and rife with political patronage. Bullard notes that parental involvement and stronger political leadership has improved the schools. V: Footage of Batson saying that the city has been forced to confront its racial problems through school desegregation. Shots of African American and white students entering an elementary school. Bullard reports that the federal court still runs the Boston Public School System. V: Footage of Batson saying that the process of desegregation has been valuable to some students. Shot of a Lee School student performing a song in the "Wizard of Oz" play. The audio of the student singing accompanies shots of a police officer in front of South Boston High School; of African American students entering South Boston High School; of Wynegar in front of South Boston High School; of a student passing through a metal detector; of African American and white students playing basketball; of an empty classroom; of the Lonegan family; of young African American and white students; of police cruisers leaving the school yard of South Boston High School. Children at the Lee School clap for the student performer on stage.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 06/01/1978
Description: White students exit South Boston High. About 25 Massachusetts uniformed state troopers board Massachusetts State Police bus. Massachusetts State Police Cruiser exits school parking lot. Jerome Wynegar (Headmaster, South Boston High School) stands in the school yard and talks to students.
1:00:08: Visual: White students exit South Boston High School in small groups. Jerome Wynegar (Headmaster, South Boston High School) stands in front of the school, talking to passersby. The students walk down G Street, away from the school . Snow blankets the ground. A Massachusetts State Police bus is parked in front of the school. About 25 state police officers file onto the bus. A state police car pulls out from the front of the school, into the street. Small groups of students, police, and officials remain in front of the school.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 02/15/1977