Description: Marcus Jones reports on tension over school desegregation in Lowell. Jones reports that Robert Kennedy (Mayor of Lowell) called on supporters of school desegregation to show support by riding buses with students in Lowell today. Jones' report includes footage of Kennedy addressing supporters, including Evelyn Murphy (Lieutenant governor of Massachusetts), Luis Tiant (former Red Sox pitcher) and Grace Corrigan (mother of astronaut Christa McAuliffe). Jones reports that George Kouloheras (Lowell School Committee) is a leader of the anti-busing movement in Lowell. Jones reports that Kuoloheras is campaigning to elect anti-busing candidates to the Lowell School Committee in order to overturn the present school desegregation plan. Jones interviews Kouloheras. Kouloheras says that he hopes that new school committee will reject busing and find another way to integrate schools. Jones also interviews Michael Kennedy (Regional Manager, National School Bus Service, Inc.) and Donna Senior (Lowell parent) about the bus routes in Lowell. Jones notes that the coming elections will decide how school desegregation is implemented in Lowell. Jones' report is accompanied by footage of students and school buses in Lowell. This tape includes additional footage of school buses on the streets in Lowell. This edition of the Ten O'Clock News also included the following item: Christy George reports on student enrollment plans in the cities of Cambridge and Lowell
0:59:06: Visual: Footage of Robert Kennedy (Mayor of Lowell) addressing an audience. Supporters of the mayor stand behind him, including Evelyn Murphy (Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts), Luis Tiant (former Red Sox pitcher), and Grace Corrigan (mother of astronaut Christa McAuliffe). Kennedy says that he is glad to be with so many of "Lowell's friends." Marcus Jones reports that many supporters of school desegregation voluntarily rode school buses in Lowell today. V: Shots of Murphy, Tiant and Corrigan. Footage of Corrigan saying that she is happy to spend time with the schoolchildren of Lowell. Footage of Kennedy urges citizens to put aside their political differences and to ride the buses with Lowell schoolchildren. Jones reports that Kennedy called in supporters to build faith in the Lowell busing program. V: Shots of busing supporters walking on a sidewalk; of school buses on the street. Footage of Michael Kennedy (Regional Manager, National School Bus Service. Inc.) saying that he will need a few more weeks to finalize the bus routes in Lowell; that he will need to recruit bus drivers for the bus routes. Shot of a school bus pulling up to a school; of schoolchildren exiting the bus. Footage of Donna Senior (Lowell parent) saying that the bus routes are chaotic in Lowell; that there is a risk of someone getting hurt in the winter; that parents are waiting at bus stops until 4:00 or 5:00pm for their children to arrive home from school. Footage of George Kouloheras (Lowell School Committee) saying that the issue is political; that he is disappointed in the situation. Jones reports that Kouloheras opposes the city's busing plan; that Kouloheras is campaigning to elect anti-busing candidates to the Lowell City Council and to the Lowell School Committee; that these candidates may alter the state-mandated central enrollment plan. V: Shot of Kouloheras speaking to two white women on the street. Footage of Kouloheras saying that he hopes that four new members of the School Committee will be elected. Kouloheras says that he hopes that the new School Committee will reject busing and find another way to integrate schools. Jones notes that Robert Kennedy cast the swing vote which approved the city busing plan last spring. V: Footage of Robert Kennedy saying that the city can choose between taking control of desegregation or having the court make desegregation decisions. Jones stands in front of a school bus. Children board the bus. Jones reports that next Tuesday's elections are viewed as a referendum on the busing plan; that the election results will decide how the desegregation plan is implemented.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 10/26/1987
Description: Police, including Captain Bill MacDonald (Boston Police Department) disperse a crowd in Monument Square in Charlestown after an anti-busing demonstration. A crowd is gathered in front of Bunker Hill Housing Project. Police and US Marshals are stationed across the street from the crowd. The police maneuver in the street. The crowd jeers at police and at least one bottle is thrown. The crowd retreats into the housing project. Police move up Bunker Hill Street. Robert DiGrazia (Police Commissioner, City of Boston) is present.
0:58:19: Visual: A large crowd of mostly students is gathered along a street in Monument Square. Police are stationed in the street, monitoring the crowd. Captain Bill MacDonald (Boston Police Department) addresses the crowd through a bullhorn, telling them to go home. Crowd begins to disperse, chanting periodically. An MDC Police vehicle is visible. 1:01:02: V: A Boston Police truck with officers seated in back drives past Charlestown High School and stops. MacDonald issues instructions to them through a bullhorn. Police officers exit from the back of the truck and gather in front of the high school. MacDonald issues more instructions through a bullhorn. Robert DiGrazia (Police Commissioner, City of Boston) confers with an officer across from the school. 1:02:37: V: The crowd disperses, moving along Bunker Hill Street. Shot of Concord Street and the intersection of Concord and Bunker Hill Streets. DiGrazia walks down Concord Street. Residents watch the action on the street from their windows. Graffiti on Concord Street marks a boundary of 100 yards from the high school: "100 yds. - Freedom Ends Here." Shot up Concord Street to High School. 1:03:45: V: Police are assembled at the intersection of Concord and Bunker Hill Streets. A crowd is gathered outside of the Bunker Hill Housing Project on Bunker Hill Street. Shots of crowd outside housing project; of police assembled in street. 1:05:25: V: The crowd cheers as police march back up Concord Street toward the high school. Members of the press, including Gary Griffith (reporter), follow the police up Concord Street. The crowd in front of the housing project moves into the street. A voice yells into a bullhorn, "Ok kids, it's your neighborhood." The crowd mills about in front of housing project. 1:07:08: V: A few police officers walk down Concord Street toward the housing project. A large crowd is still gathered in front of the housing project. A group of US Marshals walk down Concord Street. DiGrazia surveys the scene from the top of Concord Street. Voices can be heard taunting the police. DiGrazia walks down Concord Street toward the housing project. A woman walks her father back to his house, so that he won't get hurt "when the bottles start." 1:09:06: V: The large crowd in front of the housing project cheers loudly. Shot of a US Marshal walking away from the crowd. Noise of a bottle breaking against the pavement. Police on Concord Street watch the crowd in front of the housing project. The noise of a helicopter is audible. MacDonald shouts instructions through a bullhorn to police. Two US Marshals in riot helmets walk down Concord Street. A group of police march in formation from Monument Square down Concord Street. DiGrazia stands with a group of officers at the end of Concord Street, across from the housing project. A helicopter circles overhead. The crowd thins as people move into the housing project. MacDonald advances toward a crowd of youth, turning the corner onto Bunker Hill Street. DiGrazia and a group of officers and US Marshals follow MacDonald. MacDonald shouts into the bullhorn. A group of police officers exit the housing project and take a right as they continue to walk up Bunker Hill Street. Cars pass slowly on Bunker Hill Street. Small groups of people are gathered on the sidewalks. Police officers and the media walk in the street. 1:13:49: V: Three US Marshals in riot helmets confer on Bunker Hill Street. Police officers walk up the street. The media are gathered on a street corner. Two officers stand at the side of the street. One officer adjusts his riot helmet.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/08/1976
Description: 11 B+W wire service photos of South Boston residents opposing busing. Helmet bearing legend "Southie is my home town." Man with loudspeaker in car. Van with sign flipped upside down "Boston Under Siege." "Forced busing? Never!" under three-leaf clover. South Boston Information Center and Home School Association storefront.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 05/17/1979
Description: Bunker Hill Monument, exteriors of Charlestown High School, and Charlestown environs. A few police officers are stationed along Monument Square outside of Charlestown High School. Robert Murphy (Headmaster, Charlestown High School) stands in front of the school. School buses, accompanied by a police motorcycle escort, pull up in front of the school. African American students exit the buses and enter the school. Police officer tells camera operator that there is a standing order that the press has to remain across the street. A small number of photographers record the arrival of the buses from across the street. White students walks towards school and enter. Gary Griffith does several takes of reporter standup saying that the arrival of school buses at Charlestown High School was routine.
0:00:18: Visual: Shots of the Bunker Hill Monument; of the exterior of Charlestown High School. Two police officers stand outside of Charlestown High School. A white woman walks into the school. A muffled voice yells out, "No busing." Robert Murphy (Headmaster, Charlestown High School) stands out in front of the high school. Shot of Concord Street. Police motorcycles approach the school. Five police officers on motorcycles receive instructions from a police official. The motorcycles pull away. 0:03:41: V: School buses circle Monument Square and approach the high school. Police motorcycles escort the buses. A police officer stands near a Boston Police Department station wagon parked across the street from the high school. The officer watches the buses pull up in front of the school. African American students exit the buses and enter the school. Shot of the Hudson Bus Lines logo on one of the buses. The school buses pull away from the high school, accompanied by the police motorcycles. Murphy, a police officer, and a few school officials remain in front of the school. 0:07:06: V: White students walk toward the entrance of the school. Murphy and another school official greet a few of the students. A police officer is heard telling members of the media to move across the street. Two police officers stand casually on the corner of Bartlett Street and Monument Square. White students walk toward the school. Fewer than ten members of the media record the scene from the sidewalk across the street. A Hudson Bus Lines airport van pulls up in front of the school. An African American student is inside of the van. The van pulls away. The sidewalk in front of the school is empty. Some members of the media depart as two police officers walk up the opposite side of the street. Murphy speaks to two police officers on the corner of Bartlett Street and Monument Square. A man in a business suit speaks to a two-person camera crew. The street is quiet. Murphy and a police officer walk toward the school. 0:12:11: V: Gary Griffith stands outside of Charlestown High School. Griffith reports on the routine arrival of five buses at the high school this morning. He reports that there is no sign of unrest. The crew does two more takes of Griffith reporting on the story.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/08/1977
Description: South Boston environs. Graffiti written in large white letters on G Street reads, "Go home, Jerome. You failed." (Graffiti refers to South Boston High School Headmaster Jerome Wynegar.) African American and white members of a girls' softball team stand on the steps outside of South Boston High School. A few school officials, police officers and others, including Eric Van Loon (attorney for the plaintiffs, Morgan v. Hennigan), are gathered on the steps of the school. Police are stationed along G Street as school buses pull up in front of the school. African American students exit the school and board the buses. The softball team boards a bus parked in front of the steps to the school. The buses depart.
0:00:31: Visual: Shots of East 6th Street in South Boston. Boston harbor is visible in the distance. Boston Police Department trucks are parked on G Street in front of South Boston High School. Graffiti in large white letters on the pavement of G Street reads, "Go home Jerome. You failed." (Graffiti refers to South Boston High School Headmaster Jerome Wynegar.) Police are gathered in groups along G Street. 0:02:28: V: A police cruiser with flashing lights leads two yellow school buses up East 6th Street. The buses head toward the high school, directed by a police officer. African American and white members of a girls softball team are gathered on the steps of the high school. Police officers, other students and school officials are also on the steps. Eric Van Loon (attorney for the plaintiffs, Morgan v. Hennigan) stands on the steps, talking to an African American woman and two African American men. 0:04:01: V: A bus is parked in front of the steps of the high school. The softball players board the bus. A group of African American students exit the school and walk toward the school buses parked in front of the school. Two police officers seated on their motorcycles observe the scene. African American students continue to board the buses. A few white students are gathered on the steps of the high school. Police officers direct the school buses in front of the school to depart. The buses travel down G Street, followed by a police motorcycle. Members of the media record the departure of the buses. The bus carrying the softball team departs. The girls wave goodbye. 0:07:01: V: Two police officers confer in the school yard of the high school. Massachusetts State Police officers board a Massachusetts State Police bus in the school yard.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 05/12/1977
Description: South Boston High exterior. Parking space designated for press. Graffiti on street: “print the truth.” Two Boston police officers in front of school. Five school buses approach with lights blinking. Mostly black students stream off buses, go up steps to school entrance. Jerome Wynegar walks up. More buses arrive with black students. Long line of buses depart, descend hill. Students enter main hallway, walk through metal detector. Close-up on needle meter. Students in art class draw on large sheets of paper; teacher gives individual attention. Shots of empty classroom, with PA announcements being made in the background. Walking shot down dark hallway with lockers.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 06/08/1978
Description: South Boston High exterior on first day of school. Press photographers stand around outside waiting for something to happen. Three upperclassmen say it is quieter inside since desegregation furor has died down, and learning can take place. They discuss news programs in the school. Several takes of reporter standup. Graffiti “stop forced busing” still visible on street. School bus arrives, lets off two black girls. Interview in front of School Committee headquarters with woman from Citywide Education Coalition who appraises current state of Boston schools: parents are involved and important to educational improvement; vocational education is woefully lacking; must upgrade reading and basic skills. “City can someday have an attractive and credible public school system.” She cautions that just because it is quiet now compared to the first years of busing, people should not assume the school system is okay; it still needs criticism and community input. Editor's note: Content given off the record was edited out of this footage.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/06/1978
Description: State and Boston police and US marshals outside South Boston High School. Black students get off buses. Headmaster Jerome Wynegar. Girls in parochial school uniforms walk by. More black students get off buses, walk up to school. Police on motorcycles escort empty buses away from school. Mass of white students wait at iron fence. TV cameramen and news photographers stand by. Girl wearing Southie sweatshirt. White students are allowed to enter school.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/13/1976
Description: Audio goes in and out. Boston police cars and police officers stationed on the street outside of Hyde Park High School. School buses arrive escorted by police cruiser with flashing lights. Ambulance waiting in parking lot. African American students exit the school and board buses. White Hyde Park residents watch the action on the street. A white student tells the camera crew that a fight broke out in the school. Police and media are gathered outside of the school. Hyde Park environs, with snow covering the ground. Shot of the side of the Channel 2 news van.
0:00:17: Visual: Exterior of Hyde Park High School. Snow blankets the ground. A line of police cars rings the street in front of the school. Police officers and school officials stand on the front steps of the school. Police officers are stationed on the streets surrounding the school. An ambulance idles on the street in front of the school. 0:02:57: V: A police cruiser with lights flashing escorts a line of buses up Central street. The buses pull up beside the school. A group of African American students approach the buses. A police car pulls away from the scene. White Hyde Park residents observe the action on the street from the porch of a house on Central Street. Groups of police officers confer on the street outside of the school. African American students exit from a side entrance of the school and board the buses. Shot of Hyde Park residents on porch of house. More African American students head toward the buses. Members of the media observe the students as they board the buses. 0:08:08: V: Officials confer on the street outside of the school. Police and the media survey the scene. Shot of the exterior of the school. Two of the buses pull away from the school, escorted by a Boston police cruiser with flashing lights. The buses proceed up Metropolitan Avenue. 0:10:34: V: A white student leans against a car outside of the school. A crew member asks him what happened in the school. The student says that a fight broke out; that he does not know how it started. A police cruiser leaves the scene. Groups of white residents observe the action from street corners. More buses pull away from the school and continue up Metropolitan Avenue, accompanied by a police cruiser. A white teenager walks up the street, away from the school. 0:13:17: V: Police officers direct traffic away from the school. Shot of a police officer grasping baton behind his back. The remaining buses pull away from the school, accompanied by a police cruiser. Police officers and the media continue to stand in front of the school. The ambulance pulls away. A police officer talks to a group of white teenagers. The teenagers walk up Westminster Street, away from the school. Two white female teenagers talk to a group of three police officers in front of the school.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 02/10/1977
Description: The sound goes in and out at the beginning of this video. Exteriors of South Boston High School and South Boston environs. African American students board buses at South Boston High School. Boston Police officers are stationed near the school. Police cruisers escort buses to and from the school. Jerome Wynegar (Headmaster, South Boston High School) stands in the school yard. White students exit the school after the buses depart. A passerby tells the camera crew that their presence causes a disturbance.
1:00:09: Visual: Exterior of South Boston High School. A Boston Police cruiser is parked in the courtyard of the school, to the right of the steps. Shots of exterior of the school. A Massachusetts State Police cruiser is parked to left of the steps. A group of three white students exits the school. Shots of G Street; of rowhouses in front of the school on G Street; of the high school; of a "Wallace for President" sticker on a street sign. Two white students exit the school. 1:06:14: V: Shot of East 6th Street. The street is snowy. A Boston Police station wagon is parked in front of the high school. An officer exits the station wagon and walks toward the school. A small green and white bus maneuvers in the courtyard of the school. Shot of students walking down G Street, away from the school. A student closes the window on the second floor of the school. Shot of the exterior of the school. The green and white bus is idling in front of the school entrance. Shot of house on the corner of G Street and Thomas Park. A Boston Police station wagon pulls away from the school. A Boston Police cruiser pulls into the school yard. Two officers exit the car. Shot of one of the Boston Police cruisers in school yard; the cruiser is labeled "Tactical Patrol Force." 1:10:02: V: A police cruiser with flashing lights escorts a line of yellow school buses up G Street. The school buses pull up in front of the school. A few police officers station themselves along G Street. Small groups of minority students exit the school. One student stops to wave at the camera. African American students make their way toward the buses. There are a few Hispanic students among those boarding the buses. Audio of students talking to the camera crew. Students peer out of the windows of the buses. The buses pull away in single file. The small green and white bus pulls out of the school yard, into the street. One remaining school bus pulls away, followed by a Boston Police station wagon with its lights flashing. 1:17:34: V: Pan of houses on G Street. A lone African American male student waits in front of the school. White students slowly exit the school. Jerome Wynegar (Headmaster, South Boston High School) stands in the school yard, talking to officials and passersby. A few police officers remain in the school yard. Students file out of the school yard. An African American teacher confers with Wynegar. Audio of a voice speaking to the camera crew, "Do you realize that you're being here creates more of a disturbance than when you're not here?" A crew member responds. Bits of an ensuing conversation can be heard. A few white students linger on the steps of the school. Wynegar remains in the school yard. Students continue to exit the building.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 02/15/1977
Description: Exterior of South Boston High School. Headmaster Jerome Wynegar in front of school. Students enter school. South Boston environs. Crowd of South Boston residents gathered on the street. Rolling shots taken from news van driving down the streets of South Boston. Anti- busing and racist graffiti: “Stop Forced Busing” “White Power” “Never Nigger”
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/08/1976
Description: Debate on the success of school desegregation, moderated by Jim Lehrer. Filmed in the auditorium of Dunbar High School in Washington D.C. Lehrer explains outline and rules for debate. Busing advocates include Arthur Flemming (Chairman of the US Commission on Civil Rights), Murray Saltzman, Frankie Freeman of US Commission on Civil Rights. Flemming begins debate with opening statement by the US Commission on Civil Rights. Lino Graglia of the Neighborhood Schools Association makes opening remark for anti-busing representative group. Sue Mills, Herbert Walberg of Neighborhood Schools Association. Coproduced by WGBH and WETA.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 11/15/1976
Description: Audio goes in and out. Hyde Park environs. Uniformed police are stationed outside of Hyde Park High School, including horse mounted officers. Students exit the school. African American students board buses. Buses depart with police motorcycle escort. Pam Bullard interviews Hyde Park High School teachers Terry Gaskill and Hugh Mullen discuss racial tension inside the school. The students have returned to school after a recent racial disturbance. Mullen says that the school was quiet; that the students segregated themselves along racial lines. Mullen says that a small group of students is responsible for the trouble at the school. Both teachers agree that the students do not act up when the police are present in the school. Tape 1 of 2.
0:58:01: Visual: Shots of a black dog on the porch of a house on Westminster Street, near Hyde Park High School; of a police horse standing on the grass while a police officer talks to a resident; of the exterior of Hyde Park High School. Police are stationed outside of Hyde Park High School. A police bus is parked in front of the school. Three police officers stand on the steps of the school, while one police officer directs traffic on the street. A police officer pulls up on a motorcycle. 1:00:44: V: A line of school buses pulls up Central Street and stops beside Hyde Park High School. Two mounted police officers survey the scene from the intersection. Several officers are stationed on the steps of the school. Cars pass by slowly. Another police officer arrives on a motorcycle. 1:05:19: V: Shot of the exterior of Hyde Park High School. African American and white students exit the school. African American students walk toward the school buses and board them. Police and the media survey the scene. 1:09:56: V: Groups of police officers appear in the front entrances of the school. Three of the buses pull away, escorted by police on motorcycles. The buses travel up Metropolitan Avenue. Three more buses follow, accompanied by a police officer on a motorcycle. Groups of students, school officials, and police remain on the steps of the school. The last bus pulls away, with a police motorcycle escort. Police officers exit the school and walk down the steps. Groups of people remain on the steps. Close up shot of a white woman police officer on a horse. A few police officers walk away from the school. 1:13:27: V: Pam Bullard sets up an interview with two Hyde Park teachers in front of the school. Terry Gaskill is African American and Hugh Mullen is white. Vehicle noise makes their voices inaudible at beginning of interview. Gaskill advocates an after school program or gathering place for both white and African American youth in Boston. He notes that African American and white students gather on the streets after school; that a group of angry white youth kicked his car last year as he drove to Hyde Park High School. Mullen says that the day went smoothly; that the school staff had to break up groups of students in order to get them into homeroom in the morning; that the strong police presence made a difference; that the police did not interfere with school activities. Gaskill says that the students were tense at the beginning of the day; that the atmosphere was quiet. Bullard asks about racial tension among the students. Mullen says that the students segregated themselves along racial lines today; that students of different races had been mixing somewhat before Friday's racial disturbance. Gaskill says that the first day of school was calm; that racial tension began to build up among the students as the week progressed. Mullen agrees that the first few days of school were quiet. He says that there is a small group of students who make trouble; that the situation at the school will not get better unless they can get rid of the small group of troublemakers. Mullen adds that the school has a large freshman class this year; that he had thought the presence of the younger students would help to ease the tensions of the previous year; that teachers will not be able to assess the situation until the police pull out of the school; that the students do not dare act out while the police are present. Gaskill agrees that students will not act out while police are in the building.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/15/1976
Description: Boston School Committee meeting, with Mayor Kevin White in attendance, where he discusses school desegregation and states his support for the recently elected school committee. Says Judge Arthur Garrity should cede some control to that body.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 03/11/1976
Description: Exteriors of South Boston High School. South Boston environs. Large graffiti in crosswalk “Winegar [sic] we don't want you.” Black students stream off bus, walk toward front entrance. Jerome Wynegar stands by. Plainclothes US marshals with armbands and walkie-talkies. Police keep press photographers behind line.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/08/1976
Description: Kim Reid , a student at Brighton High School, sits with a group of students in a classroom. The students talk about school activities and look at yearbooks while discussing a movie they saw on television. Another group of students in the classroom also look at yearbooks. This tape also includes footage of Reid exiting Brighton High School and boarding a school bus outside.
1:00:00: Visual: Kim Reid (Brighton High School student) sits with a three white and Hispanic students in a classroom at Brighton High School. They talk about ordering sweatshirts to sell at school. The students talk about scheduling meetings after school. Another student points out that Kim needs to know about meetings in advance because she needs to arrange transportation home. The students talk about choosing a theme for their class night. A female student seated across from Kim looks at a yearbook. A racially diverse group of boys is seated near Kim's group. A white teacher arranges files and papers at her desk. Kim's group continues to talk to one another. Kim's group looks at a yearbook. Close-up shot of Kim. The students talk about the upcoming prom. Shots of a girl turning pages of the yearbook. Kim opens the yearbook in front of her. Kim says that she knows fewer people now than she did in the ninth grade. The group identifies and talks about the people in the yearbook. The group of boys also look at yearbooks. 1:08:24: V: Kim walks over to the teacher's desk. She looks for a book on the teacher's desk. The crew sets up a shot of Kim walking across the room with a book. Kim sits down with her group. Kim and the other students talk about a TV movie. Shots of the two other girls in Kim's group. Shots of the group of boys talking to one another. 1:14:00: V: Shots of the exterior of Brighton High School; of school buses waiting on Warren Street in front of the school. An African American male student jokes around with the camera crew. Kim descends the stairs toward the buses with a group of African American and Asian American students. The students wave and talk to the camera crew as they board the buses. A police officer stands against the fence on the sidewalk. Kim walks toward her bus. The camera crew does a three takes of Kim and other students boarding the buses.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 01/15/1985
Description: Hope Kelly reviews the history of school desegregation in Boston. She notes that many critics cite the absence of middle-class and white students as a reason for the continued failure of the Boston Public Schools. She focuses on the Timilty Middle School in Boston, a magnet school with successful reading and math programs for its students. Kelly interviews teacher William Moran and principle Shirley Gonsalves about the school and its programs. Moran says that the students are successful. He adds that many come from disadvantaged backgrounds. Gonsalves talks about the benefits of school desegregation. Kelly reports that the Timilty School was named a National School of Excellence in 1989. Following the edited story is additional b-roll footage of students and teachers in classrooms at the Timilty School.
1:00:07: Visual: Shot of a school bus door closing. Shots of a school bus outside of the Timilty Middle School; of students on the bus; of white and African American students exiting the Timilty Middle School; of students boarding a bus outside of the school. Shots of African American and white students in a hallway of the school. Hope Kelly reports that busing for school desegregation began seventeen years ago in Boston; that busing was viewed as a way to bring equal opportunity to all students. Kelly notes that busing drove many middle-class white and African American parents away from the school system. Kelly reports that critics cite a lack of middle-class students as a reason for the continued failure of Boston Public Schools. V: Footage of William Moran (Timilty School) being interviewed. Moran says that all students can learn. Kelly reports that Moran grew up in the South End and Roxbury; that Moran attended Boston Public Schools and went to college. V: Shots of Moran walking through a corridor in the Timilty School; of Moran speaking to three students in the doorway of a classroom. Kelly reports that Moran is the seventh-grade coordinator at the Timilty Middle School; that Moran attended the Timilty School twenty years ago. Kelly reports that the Timilty Middle School ranks first city-wide in reading; that the Timilty Middle School is second city-wide in mathematics. Kelly notes that the students at the Timilty School do not come from advantaged backgrounds. V: Shots of a white teacher teaching students of diverse races in a well decorated classroom. Shots of the students in the classroom. Footage of Moran saying that students at the Timilty School low-income families; that many of the students live in housing projects. Moran says that the students come from disadvantaged neighborhoods across the city; that the school is a city-wide school. Kelly reports that most of the students at the Timilty School are non-white and poor. V: Shots of students walking in a corridor of the Timilty School. Footage of Shirley Gonsalves (Timilty School) being interviewed by Kelly. Gonsalves says that race and class are not the determining factors among the school's students. Gonsalves says that the school can do nothing about the relative poverty of its students. Kelly reports that Gonsalves is the assistant principal at the Timilty School; that she has worked in the Boston Public School System for seventeen years. V: Shot of Gonsalves walking through a corridor and up a set of stairs with a student. Kelly reports that Gonsalves began teaching in Boston during the first year of school desegregation. V: Footage of Gonsalves being interviewed. Gonsalves says that she grew up in the rural South where busing was used to maintain segregated schools. Gonsalves says that she rode a bus to school from the age of six to the age of eighteen. Shots of students walking in a corridor at the Timilty School. Kelly reports that there are low numbers of white students in the Boston Public School System; that 11% of students at the Timilty School are white. Kelly reports that Gonsalves believes that school integration has been a success. V: Shots of a white student entering a classroom at the Timilty School; of a white teacher standing with two African American students in a hallway. Footage of Gonsalves being interviewed by Kelly. Gonsalves says that students attended schools in their own neighborhoods with students of their own race before school integration. Gonsalves says that students were not exposed to other students of different backgrounds and from different neighborhoods. Gonsalves says that students need to learn about people of different backgrounds. Shots of a white teacher teaching to a class of middle school students; of an African American male student sitting at a desk in the classroom. Shots of other students in classrooms; of an African American female student writing on a chalkboard; of an African American boy reading a book at his desk. Shot of the white teacher teaching to students in the classroom. Kelly reports that the Timilty School is a magnet school; that classes are smaller at the Timilty School; that the schoolday at the Timilty School is 1.5 hours longer on four of five days per week. Kelly reports that the waiting list to enter the sixth grade class at the Timilty School had 200 names. Kelly reports that the Timilty School was named a National School of Excellence in 1989. V: Shot of Gonsalves and a student walking in the corridor.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 03/22/1991
Description: Pam Bullard reports on the Tobin Elementary School, which is located near the Mission Hill Housing Project.Bullard reports that 75 white children are bused into the Tobin school with no problems. Interviews with students and teachers talking about how much they like the school. Bullard reports that Charlie Gibbons, the principal, encourages teachers to develop innovative programs for students. During the report Principal Gibbons was in Puerto Rico learning about the schools there to better be able to serve the Latino students at his school. Bullard notes that the school has a good atmosphere and enjoys a good rapport with the community.
9:50:07: Visual: Shots of street sign for Tobin Ct.; of the Mission Hill Housing Project. Pam Bullard reports that the Mission Hill Housing Project is in one of Boston's toughest neighborhoods; that racial fighting occurred there two weeks before school opened; that the housing project is in the heart of a depressed neighborhood. Bullard reports that the Tobin Elementary School is located near the housing project. V: Footage of an African American male student (Derek) saying that he has attended the Tobin School for four years; that he knows all of the teachers and gets along with them; that the school is special because of the teachers, the kids, and the field trips. A white male student (Richard) says that Derek is his friend; that he likes the Tobin school; that he has fun taking the bus everyday; that he has met a lot of new people. Bullard reports that Charlie Gibbons (principal, Tobin School) and his assistant are in Puerto Rico; that they are learning about the Puerto Rican school system in order to understand the needs of Spanish-speaking students; that Gibbons and his assistant are paying for their own trips. V: Shots of Gibbons' office; of a button reading "I go to the best - Tobin School, Roxbury"; of a thank-you note written to Gibbons from the students. Bullard reports that the Tobin School has extensive reading and physical education programs set up with Boston University; that there is a program for dental care set up with the Harvard Dental school; that the Tobin School has one of the city's best bilingual programs; that the students receive a lot of individual attention. Bullard reports that Gibbons and the teachers at the Tobin set up most of these programs themselves. V: Footage of student reading Spanish; of a student writing on a chalkboard; of bilingual posters in a classroom. Footage of a teacher at a chalkboard; of students in classroom. A white female teacher says that the students respond well to the school's programs; that she tries to give the students individual attention; that she likes the students and the parents at the Tobin. Footage of children playing learning games. An African American female teacher says that she agrees with Gibbons that the Tobin is the best school in Boston; that the Tobin has a warm atmosphere, a good faculty and a lot of support from the community. An African American male student says that he likes the Tobin because he learns things. Bullard reports that the Tobin school is located in a predominantly African American neighborhood; that 75 white students have been bused in with no problems; that students and teachers like the school very much. V: Footage of children playing on a field outside of the school. The Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Help is visible.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 03/26/1976
Description: Some sound dropout at the beginning of the tape. Pam Bullard's 1978 review of school desegregation in Boston. The review focuses on the effects of desegregation on South Boston High School and the Joseph Lee School. Bullard reports that attendance is low at South Boston High School, but the school atmosphere and programs have improved. Bullard reports that the Joseph Lee School is a good example of a successfully integrated elementary school. The story includes footage of Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston) and interviews with Ruth Batson (African American community activist), Jerome Wynegar (headmaster, South Boston High School), David Finnegan (Boston School Committee), Robert Peterkin (headmaster, English High School). Bullard also interviews teachers and students at the Lee School and South Boston High School. The report ends with footage of students at the Lee School performing in a play of "The Wizard of Oz."
1:00:02: Visual: Shot of Boston skyline. Footage of Mayor Kevin White on September 9, 1974 calling on Boston residents to come together to make busing work. Footage of buses pulling up in front of South Boston High School on the first day of school in 1974. A crowd of antibusing protesters has gathered outside of the high school. The crowd jeers at the buses. Shots of the Boston Public Gardens. Footage of Ruth Batson (African American community activist) describing Boston as a "racist, violent city." She says that the violence stemming from school desegregation has spilled over into the streets and housing projects. Footage of police marching in formation on Bunker Hill Street in Charlestown. A large crowd is gathered outside of the Bunker Hill Housing Project. Pam Bullard reports that violence and racial hatred erupted in Boston when a federal court ordered the desegregation of schools in 1974. She notes that President Gerald Ford was forced to put the 82nd Airborne division on alert, in preparation for duty on the streets of Boston. Bullard reports that the toughest neighborhoods are quiet three years later; that African American and white children attend school together without incident. V: Shots of a lone police officer outside of South Boston High School; of African American and white children entering an elementary school. 1:01:39: Bullard reports that the effects of school desegregation will not be known for years; that some inconclusive studies have been made. V: Footage of African American and white students in an integrated elementary school classroom. Bullard notes that resistance to school desegregation in Boston has been overcome. V: Shots of a busy street in South Boston; of a young white boy outside of a church; of two elderly white residents sitting on a stoop in South Boston; of racist graffiti on a wall. Bullard reports that the fiercest opposition to court-ordered desegregation in the north took place in South Boston; that the opposition has calmed down since 1974. Bullard notes that school buses transporting students to and from South Boston High School are still accompanied by a police escort; that they are greeted by four police officers on duty at the high school. V: Shots of a police cruiser leading school buses up G Street to South Boston High School; of police officers outside South Boston High School; of African American students exiting the buses at South Boston High School. Bullard notes that metal detectors were installed at South Boston High School after the stabbing of a student three years ago. V: Footage of a student passing through a metal detector; of the halls of South Boston High School. Bullard reports that racial hatred and fear at South Boston High School have given way to a lingering uneasiness. V: Footage of a white teacher in a classroom in South Boston High School. He teaches to a classroom of eight African American and white students. Bullard notes that attendance is low at South Boston High School; that classes can be as small as four students. V: Shots of teachers teaching to very small classes at the high school. A teacher is heard saying that the official enrollment at South Boston High School is 600 students; that she estimates the enrollment to be 300 students. Shots of an African American teacher helping an African American female student at a desk; of students studying in classrooms; of teachers and students in sparsely populated classrooms. Bullard notes that the school was put under receivership by the federal court in 1975; that Jerome Wynegar (Headmaster, South Boston High School) was brought in by the court; that Wynegar and his staff have instituted many alternative programs at the school. V: Footage of Wynegar saying that there are fewer problems at South Boston High School because students are happy with the school programs. Shots of white and African American students studying in classrooms at the high school. Footage of a white female teacher saying that erratic attendance is the biggest problem at South Boston High School; that she finds herself repeating lessons for the benefit of students who were absent. Footage of Wynegar saying that South Boston High School ranks eleventh out of eighteen schools in attendance; that he though the school would rank last in attendance; that students appreciate the way they are treated at the school. Shots of students in classrooms; in the automotive shop. Footage of the white female teachers saying that alternative programs are attractive to students; that students also need to learn basic skills. 1:05:04: Bullard notes that there are divisions between those who support traditional classroom learning and those who support alternative programs. V: Shots of students in classrooms; of students in the lunchroom. Footage of an African American female student saying that South Boston High School is much better this year than in previous years; that students are getting along and are more focused on their classes. A white male student says that more students are attending school now. Another white male student says that students are getting along better. The white female teacher says that the atmosphere at the school has improved. Shots of the corridors in South Boston High School; of white and African American students playing basketball. Bullard says that there are no answers as to why the atmosphere at South Boston has improved; that innovative programs, low attendance and a wearing down of resistance to integration are all factors. V: Footage of white and African American students exiting South Boston High School; of school buses traveling down G Street away from the school. Footage of David Finnegan (Boston School Committee) saying that the community needs to realize that there are good solid programs in the Boston Public School System; that desegregation has added to the quality education provided by the schools; that the atmosphere in the schools is good, but can be improved. Bullard notes that even critics have conceded that the court-ordered magnet school programs have been good for the school system. V: Footage of African American and white students at a student art show; of the students' art projects. Bullard notes that there are opportunities in art and drama programs at the magnet schools; that there are opportunities for student internships; that there have been no racial problems at the magnet schools. Bullard reports that desegregation has been costly in financial and human terms; that the cost of the first year of desegregation was $20 million; that the second year of desegregation was $30 million; that police overtime ran up the cost of school desegregation. Bullard notes that costs have stabilized at $12 million over the past two years; that there is less of a need for police officers in the schools now. Bullard reports that Boston taxpayers have had to pay for expenses not covered by state and federal funds; that Boston taxpayers pay the highest property taxes in the nation. Bullard notes that the school budget remains at $175 million per year; that the city has lost 28,000 white students since 1972; that one expert says that 16,000 students were lost to desegregation. V: Shots of an empty classroom; of a teacher's attendance book; of a students in a sparsely populated classroom. Bullard adds that many students transferred to parochial schools, private academies and suburban schools; that many high school students dropped out. Bullard notes that the Lonegan family of South Boston refused to bus their children; that their daughter stayed out of school for a year. V: Footage of the Lonegan family. Mrs. Lonegan sits at a table in her home with her daughter Michelle and her son. Mrs. Lonegan says that she found a job making beds at a nursing home in order to pay her children's tuition at a private school. 1:09:07: Bullard reports that Christina Termini (student) lives in West Roxbury, but attends the Lee School in Dorchester. V: Footage of Termini leaving her home and walking to a bus stop. She boards the bus. Footage shot from the inside of the bus as it travels through the city. The white children on the bus sing songs. Audio of Termini's mother saying that the Lee School is ideal for Christina; that she has great confidence in the education her daughter receives at the Lee School. Shots of African American children walking to the Lee School from the Franklin Field Housing Project. Shots of a white student in French class at the Lee School; of integrated classrooms at the Lee School. Footage of a teacher saying that the children of the Lee School get along well; that racial differences are not important in the classroom. Bullard reports that attendance at the Lee School is low; that 600 students attend the school; that the school has 1,000 seats available; that white attendance could be higher. Bullard notes that the atmosphere at the school is excellent. V: Footage of the students performing "The Wizard of Oz" on stage. A young white female student says that she likes the facilities at the Lee School; that she has met a lot of friends. Footage of the white female teacher saying that she likes teaching at the Lee School. Footage of Robert Peterkin (headmaster, English High School) saying that many other urban school systems are experiencing the same problems as Boston; that desegregation has brought stability and strong programs to the system. Footage of Lee School students at their "Wizard of Oz" play. They sing "Ding, dong, the wicked witch is dead." Bullard reports that the Boston Public School System has made impressive progress since school desegregation began in 1974; that the system is no longer deliberately segregated and rife with political patronage. Bullard notes that parental involvement and stronger political leadership has improved the schools. V: Footage of Batson saying that the city has been forced to confront its racial problems through school desegregation. Shots of African American and white students entering an elementary school. Bullard reports that the federal court still runs the Boston Public School System. V: Footage of Batson saying that the process of desegregation has been valuable to some students. Shot of a Lee School student performing a song in the "Wizard of Oz" play. The audio of the student singing accompanies shots of a police officer in front of South Boston High School; of African American students entering South Boston High School; of Wynegar in front of South Boston High School; of a student passing through a metal detector; of African American and white students playing basketball; of an empty classroom; of the Lonegan family; of young African American and white students; of police cruisers leaving the school yard of South Boston High School. Children at the Lee School clap for the student performer on stage.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 06/01/1978
Description: White students exit South Boston High. About 25 Massachusetts uniformed state troopers board Massachusetts State Police bus. Massachusetts State Police Cruiser exits school parking lot. Jerome Wynegar (Headmaster, South Boston High School) stands in the school yard and talks to students.
1:00:08: Visual: White students exit South Boston High School in small groups. Jerome Wynegar (Headmaster, South Boston High School) stands in front of the school, talking to passersby. The students walk down G Street, away from the school . Snow blankets the ground. A Massachusetts State Police bus is parked in front of the school. About 25 state police officers file onto the bus. A state police car pulls out from the front of the school, into the street. Small groups of students, police, and officials remain in front of the school.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 02/15/1977
Description: Press conference at City Hall. Boston Mayor Kevin White and Police Commissioner Robert DiGrazia read prepared statements about the following day's school opening in the third year of court-ordered busing. White expresses confidence in a peaceful opening of schools. DiGrazia says that police have been instructed to use minimum force, but to act decisively against any disruptions of public order. Both men hope that police can be removed from schools as soon as possible. White notes that the atmosphere seems calmer this year than during the previous two years. White says that he would like to remove police from the schools as soon as possible because their presence hinders the development of a healthy learning environment. Reporters question them on the school opening. Shots of Pam Bullard listening to the press conference.
2:09:33: Visual: Members of the press are assembled for a press conference at City Hall with Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston) and Robert DiGrazia (Police Commissioner, City of Boston). White begins reading a statement, then stops because there is a problem with sound. 2:11:53: V: White reads a prepared statement. He says that school opens tomorrow; that fewer students face assignments to new schools this year; that more students are attending the schools of their choice; that many schools are benefitting from programs linked with universities and businesses; that three new schools are opening; that he is confident that the school year will be productive. White says that the city is prepared to guarantee the safety of all schoolchildren; that he hopes to reduce the police presence at the schools this year; that police will restore order if disruptions occur. White urges citizens to share in the responsibility for a peaceful school opening; that the city will focus on improving schools this year. 2:14:32: V: DiGrazia reads a prepared statement. He expresses confidence in a peaceful school opening. He reports that police have received instructions to allow peaceful demonstrations, but to maintain public order; that police officers have been instructed to use minimum force and to treat those arrested with respect and courtesy. DiGrazia says that police will not tolerate any acts of violence or disruption; that these acts are often committed by only a few citizens. 2:15:56: V: White invites questions from the reporters. A reporter asks DiGrazia what kind of preparations have been made for additional police support. DiGrazia says that Massachusetts State Police will be assigned to South Boston; that MDC Police will be assigned to Charlestown; that US Marshals will be present for the opening of schools. DiGrazia says that the atmosphere on the streets seems calm; that a few citizens are engaging in disruptive behavior; that the atmosphere seems calmer than in the previous two years; that police presence will be less visible than last year; that additional police will stand by for support. DiGrazia says that the police have not received any indication that there will be outside agitators at the schools. DiGrazia says that he hopes there will be little overtime for police officers this year. DiGrazia says that uniformed State Police officers will be assigned to South Boston High School; that community service officers and juvenile officers will be assigned to monitor the other schools. 2:18:52: V: A reporter asks about cooperative efforts between the School Department, the city of Boston, and the Police Department. White says that the three entities have been working together on school desegregaton for three years; that differences about the school budget have not affected efforts to achieve a successful school opening. DiGrazia says that police will continue to enforce ordinances forbidding the assembly of more than three people along a bus route, or assemblies within 100 yards of schools. Shot of Pam Bullard. White says that he would like to remove police from schools as soon as possible; that police presence hinders a healthy learning atmospheres; that police can be removed if citizens refrain from disrupting the schools. A reporter asks DiGrazia to clarify the term "minimum force" in police conduct. DiGrazia says that he hopes police can dissuade citizens from engaging in disruptive behavior; that he would like to see the police removed from the schools as soon as possible. DiGrazia refuses to elaborate on minimum tolerance policy guidelines, but says that warnings will be given to disruptors before action is taken. DiGrazia says that the school department instituted the use of metal detectors at the schools; that they will be used again this year. DiGrazia refuses to give out information on the number of police officers assigned to the schools
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/07/1976
Description: Charles Ray, the Headmaster of Roxbury High School, talking to students, parents and faculty members in the offices of Roxbury High School. Pam Bullard interviews Ray in the administrative offices of the school. Ray talks about how the school has changed since the beginning of school desegregation in 1974. He notes that white attendance is still low, but that it is improving. Ray describes the school's bilingual program, and the academic programs set up at the school in conjunction with Harvard University. He says that many students from Roxbury High School received college scholarships last year, and discusses their college opportunities. Ray talks about the atmosphere at the school, and the close relationships between the students and the faculty. He notes that very few students transfer out of the school. He adds that most students feel comfortable at Roxbury High School. Ray says that he tries to learn the names of every student in the school. Ray talks about the challenges of urban education. He says that he encourages pregnant students to remain in school as long as possible. Ray says that he would like to see a program set up to allow students to bring their children to school with them. Ray describes the school's building and facilities. Ray tells Bullard that it is important to treat each student with respect.
1:00:05: Visual: Charles Ray (Headmaster, Roxbury High School) speaks to an African American female student in the office of Roxbury High School. He tells the student what she needs to do in order to change school assignments. 1:01:37: V: Pam Bullard sets up an interview with Ray. Ray talks about some of the photographs in the school office. He notes that the photos were taken by students from the school. Ray talks to a student who has entered the office. The student asks Ray about the television crew in the school office. Bullard notes that the Boston Public Schools are beginning their fifth year of desegregation. Bullard asks Ray how things have changed in five years. Ray notes that Roxbury High School was paired with South Boston High School during the first year of desegregation. Ray notes that only a small percentage of students from South Boston attended Roxbury High School during the first year of school desegregation. Ray says that Roxbury High School was placed in the same district as Charlestown High School during the second year of school desegregation; that Roxbury High School has remained in that district. Bullard asks Ray about white attendance at Roxbury High School. Ray says that the school has more white students now than it had during the first year of school desegregation. He notes that sixty-three white students have been assigned to the school this year; that twenty-five white students are in attendance. Ray says that he would like the Boston School Department to assign more white students to the school. Ray says that Roxbury High School has a bilingual program for Asian and Spanish-speaking students. Bullard asks Ray about Roxbury High School's programs in conjuction with Harvard University. Ray explains that Roxbury High School has been paired with Harvard University by the federal court order governing school desegregation in Boston. Ray talks about a tutoring program in which Harvard students tutor Roxbury High School students. Ray talks about the Harvard Upward Bound Program. He adds that Harvard and Roxbury High School have set up programs for students in advanced math and sciences, reading, and art. Ray explains that teachers and advanced students can take courses at Harvard University. 1:06:46: V: Bullard notes that students who attend Roxbury High School tend to stay at the school and do not transfer out. Ray agrees that not many students transfer out of the school. He adds that most students like the school and the faculty. Bullard asks Ray if many students from Roxbury High School attend college. Ray says that 74 students graduated from Roxbury High School in 1978; that 37 of those students went on to college. He adds that many of the students received scholarships last year. Ray adds that the Girls High Alumni Association has contributed to a scholarship fund for the students. Ray notes that many Roxbury High School students have done well in their college careers. Bullard asks why Roxbury High School has been a successful school. Ray says that the teachers get to know the students and their families very well. Ray notes that the faculty know most of the students by name; that the students feel comfortable at the school. Ray adds that these close relationships are the key to the school's success. Bullard asks Ray if he knows the name of every student at the school. Ray says that he is learning the names of all of the incoming freshmen; that he makes an effort to talk to the students in the hallways. Ray adds that he knows the names of all of the returning students. Bullard notes that all of the students like Ray and speak highly of him. Ray talks about the importance of knowing the name of each student. He adds that the students know that the teachers and other faculty members care about them. 1:11:43: V: Bullard asks how urban education has changed in the past decade. Ray says that programs for special needs students have changed; that pregnant students now stay in school. Ray says that he encourages pregnant students to stay in school for as long as they can. He says that he encourages them to return to school as soon as possible. Ray adds that he would like to start a program that would allow students to bring their children to school with them. He says that it might be difficult for Roxbury High School to meet the safety requirements for such a program. Bullard asks Ray if he would have chosen to be assigned to Roxbury High School. Ray says that he likes Roxbury High School. He adds that the school is structurally sound and has good facilities; that he likes the layout of the building. Ray says that the faculty at the school have a good relationship with the community and with the parents. Ray adds that he likes the atmosphere at small high schools. He says that each student gets personal attention at Roxbury High School. Bullard asks Ray what he has learned over the course of his career. Ray says that he has learned the importance of treating each student with respect. He says that the students treat him respectfully in return. Bullard closes the interview. 1:16:38: V: Ray stands behind the counter of the office at Roxbury High School. He answers questions from a student about her school schedule. Ray confers with a teacher about two problem students. Ray tells the teacher that he will speak to the students. Ray talks to two more students about their school schedules. Ray confers with another teacher in the office.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/13/1978
Description: Meg Vaillancourt reports on controversy over a new student assignment plan for the Boston Public Schools, which minority members of the Boston School Committee spoke out against at a breakfast commemorating the birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr.. School Committee members John O'Bryant, Juanita Wade, Jean McGuire, and Gerald Anderson speak to the media. They do not believe that the plan will provide equitable education for all. The plan was proposed by mayor Ray Flynn. It will allow parents to choose which schools their children will attend. Interview with Flynn, who defends the proposal, saying that it's supported by parents. He adds that School Committee members have been asked for input on the plan. Vaillancourt also reports that Flynn has proposed the decentralization of the Boston School Department and selling off the headquarters of the Boston School Department. Vaillancourt reports that minority members of the School Committee may rescind their support for superintendent Laval Wilson if he supports Flynn's school choice proposal. This edition of the Ten O'Clock News also included the following items: Elma Lewis in Marsh Chapel at Boston University on Martin Luther King Day and Carmen Fields interviews Robert Nemiroff about the playwright Lorraine Hansberry
1:00:26: Visual: Footage of city and state leaders including Michael Dukakis (Governor of Massachusetts), Charles Stith (Union United Methodist Church), Bernard Cardinal Law (Archidiocese of Boston), and Ray Flynn (Mayor of Boston) singing together at celebration in honor of the birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. (civil rights leader). Meg Vaillancourt reports that local leaders gathered over breakfast today to celebrate Martin Luther King's birthday. Vaillancourt notes that there was controversy at the breakfast over a new assignment plan for students in Boston Public Schools. V: Footage of Juanita Wade (Boston School Committee) speaking to the media. School Committee members John O'Bryant and Jean McGuire sit beside Wade. Wade calls the new plan "segregation redux." Wade says that the Boston Public Schools need to provide choice, equity, and a quality education right now. Footage of Flynn speaking to the media. Flynn says that the plan has the support of the citizens of Boston; that parents are looking for this kind of reform. Vaillancourt reports that the new plan would allow parents to choose which schools their children will attend; that parents have not been able to choose schools since school desegregation began in 1974. V: Shots of buses pulling up to the front of South Boston High School in 1974; of South Boston residents jeering at the buses. Shots of buses parked in front of South Boston High School; of African American students walking among the buses. Vaillancourt notes that the population of white students in Boston Public Schools has declined since 1974; that non-white students make up 70% of the student population in Boston Public Schools. Vaillancourt adds that the School System has been criticized for not providing students with a quality education. V: Shots of non-white students in a classroom; of an African American male student sitting in a classroom. Shot of Flynn. Vaillancourt reports that Flynn and two consultants have proposed a plan to improve the schools and to increase parental choice. V: Footage of School Committee members O'Bryant, Wade, McGuire, and Gerald Anderson sitting on a couch. African American community leaders, including Charles Yancey (Boston City Council), Eugene Rivers (African Peoples Pentecostal Church) and Louis Elisa (Boston chapter of the NAACP), stand behind them. Anderson addresses the media. Anderson says that the Boston School System needs to provide a quality education to all before it can claim to be equitable. Anderson says that the mayor needs to provide more funding to the schools. Shots of O'Bryant and other community leaders. Footage of Flynn being interviewed by Vaillancourt. Vaillancourt asks Flynn if he is surprised by the attitude of the African American community leaders. Flynn says that he has been working on the proposal for several months; that community leaders have had many opportunities to review and give input on the proposal. Footage of Anderson saying that he is offended by Flynn's attitude. Anderson notes that Flynn has said that the statements of the African American leaders are "bogus." Anderson says that the community leaders are standing up for their constituents; that Flynn's statements are "bogus." Footage of Flynn saying that the members of the School Committee have had input on the proposal; that the members of the School Committee voted twelve-to-one in favor of the plan. Flynn says that the School Committee members were told that they would have further opportunities to give input on the proposal. Footage of McGuire saying that Flynn's proposal will cost more money. McGuire says that the School Committee has not been given additional money to fund Flynn's proposal. Vaillancourt reports that the Boston Public School System spends more money per student than any other public school system in the nation. V: Shot of an African American teacher and student at the front of a classroom; of a white male student seated in a classroom; of an African American female student seated in a classroom. Vaillancourt notes that Flynn has come up with another controversial proposal to fund neighborhood schools; that Flynn has suggested the decentralization of the Boston School Department. Vaillancourt adds that the proposal would sell off the downtown headquarters of the Boston School Department on Court Street. V: Shots of the exterior of the Boston School Department headquarters. Footage of Flynn saying that the downtown headquarters of the School Department should be sold; that the money should be put into neighborhood schools. Footage of O'Bryant saying that the School System is going to end up back in court if it does not receive support from the city. Vaillancourt reports that Dr. Laval Wilson (Superintendent, Boston Public Schools) has supported Flynn's school choice plan; that Wilson's contract ends in June. V: Shots of a meeting in the chambers of the Boston School Committee; of Wilson speaking at a School Committee meeting. Vaillancourt reports that the African American members have voted to extend Wilson's contract in the past. Vaillancourt notes that Wilson's future support among the Committee's African American members may depend on his position on Flynn's school choice plan.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 01/16/1989
Description: Outside South Boston High School. Buses arrive. Mostly black students exit school and board buses. Police cruisers and motorcycles stationed in front of school. Interview with headmaster Jerome Wynegar who says despite some trouble and a severe lack of students, classes will go on, and faculty will try to keep up morale. He says “…kids come here to learn, believe it or not.” Several takes of reporter standup.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 10/18/1979
Description: Exterior South Boston High, first day of school on staggered opening schedule. Police on steps. Tilt up facade. White students walk up to school. Jerome Wynegar out front. Boston Police bus pulls up. Wynegar comments on insufficient buses to bring black students from distant neighborhoods because of contract dispute and the disruption of the staggered opening schedule. Press photographers. Person on the street interview with white mother, Evelyn Gorhan, who waited with daughter for bus that never came. Black mother, Edna Calhoun from Roxbury says she will not send her son to school until buses are available. Calhoun and another black woman, Frankie MacDonald, report rocks and expletives hurled at them. Shots of the children. “Nigers suck” graffiti on brick housing project.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/07/1977
Description: Buses pull up to Roxbury High School. The buses are not full. Asian students exit the buses and enter the school. African American and Asian students approach the high school on foot. Shots of housing in the surrounding area. Exteriors of Joseph Lee Elementary school, which school children walking towards school. Buses pull up to the Lee Elementary School. White and African American students exit buses and enter the school. African American students and parents approach the school on foot. Racially integrated classes line up in the recess yard and enter the Lee School. The students wave at the camera as they enter the school.
1:00:16: Visual: A nearly empty bus pulls up to Roxbury High School. Asian students exit the bus and enter the school. African American students approach the school on foot. Shots of Greenville Street, in front of Roxbury High School. A second bus pulls up to the school. More Asian students exit the bus and enter the school. Shot of plaque above entrance, reading "Roxbury High School." Two police officers are stationed in front of the school. Asian and African American students approach the school on foot. 1:07:20: V: A small school bus is parked in front of the Joseph Lee Elementary School. Young students of various races exit the bus. African American students and parents approach the school entrance. African American and white students exit another small school bus and approach the school entrance. Two of the white boys are identical twins. An African American boy asks the camera crew questions. He walks in front of the camera in order to be on television. More African American students and parents approach the school. Closeup shots of young African American students who have approached the camera crew. 1:12:57: V: A school bus pulls up in front of the school. Mostly white and a few African American students exit the bus and are greeted by an African American teacher. The students enter the school. Another school bus pulls up. The same African American teacher greets more African American and white students as they exit the bus. The students enter the school. 1:17:10: V: African American and white students line up for class in the recess yard. A young white female student stands alone, looking lost. The racially integrated classes enter the school building. Many students address the crew or wave at the camera as they pass by.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/09/1976
Description: Police officers and US Marshals are present outside of Charlestown High School on the first day of school during the third year of court-ordered busing in Boston. The media is gathered across the street from the school, at the foot of the Bunker Hill Monument. Robert DiGrazia (Boston Police Commissioner) confers with police and surveys the scene outside of the school. A group of buses with a police motorcycle escort pulls up to the school. African American students exit the buses and enter the school. A crowd of white youth gathers near the school. Dennis Kearney (State Representative) and Robert Murphy (Headmaster, Charlestown High School) talk to the crowd of youths. DiGrazia and Captain Bill MacDonald (Boston Police Department) confer near the crowd
0:00:05: Visual: Members of the media pass two police officers as they enter the enclosure surrounding the Bunker Hill Monument in Monument Square. Shot of three US Marshals walking toward Charlestown High School. An MDC Police officer exits a police vehicle parked near the high school. Shot of the exterior of Charlestown High School. A few police officers stand in front of the high school. Two US Marshals confer near the high school.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/08/1976
Description: Commissioner Robert DiGrazia, Boston police and US marshals stationed outside South Boston High. Black students exit school, get on bus. Buses slowly come and go. Many officials mill about on sidewalk. Headmaster Jerome Wynegar talks to Joseph Jordan. Later, white students flow out of school en masse. Comments, some racist, from the crowd waiting outside the school can be overheard.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/14/1976
Description: African American and white students exit from separate buses and join other students entering West Roxbury High School. US Marshals stand in front of the school. Robert Donahue (District Superintendent, Boston Public Schools) greets students as they enter the school. More buses drop off students at the school. Robert DiGrazia confers with officials and enters the school. A white teacher affectionately greets some African American students as they arrive at school. Administrators use two-way radio to communicate with approaching buses. Donald Burgess (headmaster, West Roxbury High School) talks to students about bus schedules as they approach the school from the parking lot.
0:10:07: Visual: Robert Donahue (District Superintendent, Boston Public Schools) greets African American students as they exit a yellow school bus. A police officer stands near the bus as the students exit. White students exit a second bus pulled up behind the first bus. White and African American students from the separate buses walk toward the entrance of West Roxbury High School. Groups of white students gather in the courtyard. Three more buses pull up to the school. White students exit the first bus. African American students exit the second and third buses. Students walk toward the entrance of the school. A group of white male students is gathered to the side of the walkway. Donahue breaks up the group and they walk easily toward the school. Three US Marshals stand on the sidewalk in front of the school. Donahue greets the US Marshals. White students continue to stream into the school, walking past the US Marshals. Donahue talks and gestures good-naturedly with a white male student on crutches. Another school bus pulls up. African American students exit the bus and walk toward the school. Groups of African American and white students enter the school. 0:08:03: V: Robert DiGrazia (Police Commissioner, City of Boston) speaks with officials gathered to the side of the walkway leading to the school. DiGrazia enters the school. White students are gathered outside of the school on the walkway. Donald Burgess (headmaster, West Roxbury High School) moves among the students with a walkie-talkie. Burgess encourages the students to enter the school. Students finish their cigarettes and make their way into the school. Members of the media film the inside of the school through a classroom window. 0:09:40: V: Another bus pulls up to the school. African American students exit the bus and walk toward the school. A teacher and a police officer supervise the students as they exit the bus. School officials and the police officer confer outside of the school. Donahue speaks into a walkie-talkie. A white teacher greets African American students affectionately as they exit the bus. He pats them on the shoulders and shakes their hands. A group of white female students walk up the steps from the school parking lot. They are followed by a group of white male students. Burgess speaks to the students as they walk up the steps. Donahue and Burgess confer about logistics. A large group of white and African American students make their way across the parking lot toward the school. Burgess speaks to some of the students about bus schedules as they approach the school. 0:16:50: V: US Marshals continue to stand in front of the school.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/13/1976
Description: No audio at the beginning. Horse-mounted police officers, police cars, police bus. Police officers are gathered along G Street outside of South Boston High School. Exteriors of the school building. School buses, accompanied by a police motorcycle escort, pull up outside of the school. African American and white students exit the school. White students walk away from the school. African American students board the buses. The buses depart. Pam Bullard interviews four South Boston High School teachers: Jerry Power, Bob Healey, Bob Donovan, and Paul Grueter. The four teachers says that conditions in the school are improving, despite negative reports in the media. Donovan says that Judge Arthury Garrity (federal judge) is among those receiving inaccurate reports about the school. They discuss some of the good things that they think are happening in South Boston High despite the racial tensions.
1:00:04: Boston Police Department vehicles are lined up along the side of the road in South Boston. A mounted police officer exercises his horse. A horse stands in a yard with grass. 1:02:21: Visual: Boston Police Department vehicles are parked in the schoolyard of South Boston High School. Police are gathered along G Street in front of the high school. Shot of the exterior of South Boston High School. A Massachusetts State Police vehicle is parked in the schoolyard. A Boston Police station wagon is parked on G Street. 1:04:55: V: Buses pull up in front of South Boston High School. The buses are accompanied by a police motorcycle escort. White students exit the high school, walking out of the schoolyard. African American students exit the high school and walk toward the buses. A young African American male student raises a clenched fist and looks at the camera. Some white students continue to exit the school, along with African American students. Two African American female students pose for the camera and say, "Hi, mom." A few of the African American students wave at the camera as they walk to the buses. Police officers stand casually on the sidewalk in front of the buses. A white student walks by the camera crew and says, "We don't watch Channel 2 news." 1:10:13: V: A group of four police officers are gathered on G Street. They laugh casually at a joke. A female African American student rushes toward her bus. Police officers mount their motorcycles. The buses pull away from the school and travel down G Street with the police escort. 1:11:57: V: Shot of the exterior of South Boston High School. Pam Bullard exits the high school, followed by four white teachers. She sets up an interview in front of the school with Jerry Power (teacher, South Boston High School), Bob Healey (teacher, South Boston High School), Bob Donovan (teacher, South Boston High School), and Paul Grueter (teacher, South Boston High School). Donovan makes it clear to Bullard that each teacher is speaking as an individual; that they are not speaking for the faculty of the school. Bullard asks each of them to say and speak their names for the camera. Bullard tells them that negative reports have been circulating about the situation inside South Boston High School. Donovan asks where the negative reports are from. Bullard says that they are from the media. Donovan says that the situation is slowly getting better after a hectic beginning of the school year. Grueter agrees that the situation is improving. Healey says that sweep teams have been established in the corridors in order to get students to class; that the school corridors had been a problem until now. Donovan says that the school faculty took some drastic measures to control the situation inside the school. Power says that the atmosphere in the school has swung between periods of tension and periods of calm; that there has been a decrease in the number of suspensions and separations of students from the school. Bullard says that many school officials and teachers outside of South Boston High School are calling the school "a lost cause." Donovan says that the faculty and staff at South Boston High School are committed to educating the students and keeping the school open. Healey says that many people are not aware of the good programs at South Boston High School. He mentions the automotive shop, business courses, and computer courses. Power says that he was quoted in a Boston Herald article that was critical of the school. He says that his quote was taken out of context. He had meant to say that not all of the students are taking full advantage of the programs offered to them; that there are both white and African American students at the school who are not interested in getting an education. Donovan says that the faculty is not ashamed of their school; that Judge Arthur Garrity (federal judge) is among those receiving inaccurate information about the situation at South Boston High School; that Garrity received a letter from the CCC which contained inaccurate information about the school.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 11/01/1976
Description: Interview with headmaster Jerome Wynegar about changes at South Boston High School in last two years in four areas: administration, discipline, curriculum review, community relations. He sees improvement in students' ability to learn with fewer disruptions than in first years of busing. He discusses the school's attempt to prepare students for their futures. He says more research is needed into educational methods for a changing world; experiential learning should be emphasized over traditional lectures. He endorses alternative programs because attendance is encouraged. reel 1 of 2
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 06/01/1978
Description: Christy George reports that the city of Lowell has chosen a central enrollment plan to accomplish school desegregation in its public schools. George notes that central enrollment plans are implemented through magnet schools; she adds that students choose schools according to the programs they offer instead of by location. George interviews Robert Kennedy (Mayor of Lowell). Kennedy says that the Lowell School Committee opted for a central enrollment plan in order to avoid court-ordered desegregation of the schools. George reports that the city of Cambridge uses a central enrollment plan and has become a national model for school desegregation. George interviews Peter Colleary (Director of Student Assignments, Cambridge Public Schools) about central enrollment in Cambridge Public Schools. George's report includes footage of a meeting between Colleary and school officials from Rochester, NY. The officials from Rochester ask questions about central enrollment in Cambridge. George notes that opponents to school desegregation in Lowell believe that central enrollment is a form of mandatory desegregation. George interviews George Kouloheras (Lowell School Committee) about his opposition to the central enrollment plan. George notes that Cambridge had a successful school system even before the adoption of the central enrollment plan. She adds that the Cambridge model may not work in every city. George's report includes footage of buses in front of schools in Lowell, footage of a girls' soccer game in Cambridge, footage of school children in classrooms, and footage of buses arriving at South Boston High School in 1976. This edition of the Ten O'Clock News also included the following item: Marcus Jones reports on tension over school desegregation in Lynn
1:00:05: Visual: Shots from a moving vehicle of students in front of South Boston High School in 1976; of buses with police escort travelling up G Street to South Boston High School; of African American students exiting buses in front of South Boston High School. Christy George reports that the city of Lowell wants to avoid court-ordered school desegregation and forced busing. George reports that Lowell is opting for a voluntary school enrollment plan; that students choose three schools which they would like to attend; that students will be bused to one of those schools. V: Shots of elementary school students in a school cafeteria; of a bus pulling up to an elementary school. Footage of Robert Kennedy (Mayor of Lowell) saying that the Lowell School Committee acted responsibly; that the School Committee wanted to avoid court intervention in Lowell schools. Shots of a white teacher teaching in a racially integrated elementary school classroom in Lowell. Shots of students in the classroom. George reports that the central enrollment plan is implemented through magnet schools; that the magnet schools offer diverse programs; that students can choose the school which offers programs which appeal to them. George notes that racial balance can result from the magnet school system; that the system has worked well in the city of Cambridge. V: Footage of Peter Colleary (Director of Student Assignments, Cambridge Public Schools) saying that school choice has been successful for Cambridge Public Schools. George notes that Colleary matches Cambridge students with their schools; that some schools have increased minority enrollment from 9% in 1981 to 43% in 1987; that students are willing to choose schools outside of their neighborhoods. V: Shots of the Cambridge High School girls' soccer team playing a soccer game. Footage of Colleary saying that 65% of Cambridge Public School students do not attend schools in their districts. Shots of the exterior of Cambridge Rindge and Latin School. George notes that the city of Cambridge owns many of its own buses; that half of the bus drivers work for the city. dShots of a school bus; of the exterior of Cambridge Rindge and Latin School. George notes that the Cambridge Public School System has become a national model for desegregation. V: Shots of Colleary talking to a delegation from the public school system of Rochester, NY. Members of the delegation ask Colleary questions about the Cambridge Public School System. George notes that critics in Lowell see the Cambridge model as another form of mandatory desegregation. V: Shot of a school bus pulling away from an elementary school in Lowell. Footage of George Kouloheras (Lowell School Committee) saying that central enrollment plans "are a euphemism for forced busing." Kouloheras says that central enrollment does not improve the education in the schools. Footage of Colleary saying that 35% of Cambridge students are bused; that the students have chosen to attend schools outside of their districts. Colleary calls it "busing by choice." George stands in front of a school at dusk. George reports that Cambridge was providing good education in its schools before the implementation of the voluntary desegregation plan. George notes that the Cambridge model may not work in every city.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 10/26/1987
Description: No audio at very beginning. Police officers and US Marshals are stationed outside of Charlestown High School. African American and white students exit the school. White students walk away from the school. African American students board buses and depart. Members of the media record the event from across the street, under Bunker Hill Monument. Gary Griffith does several takes of reporter standup from the South End. He gives an update on the senatorial race in the second Suffolk district. Elevated train tracks are visible on Washington Street. South End environs Shot of the Prudential Center. Washington St. street sign.
0:00:00: Visual: School buses pull up to the front of Charlestown High School. Graffiti on the front of the school has been painted over. A Boston Police Department cruiser pulls up behind the buses. A police officer on a motorcycle waits behind the buses. A US Marshal surveys the school from across the street. A group of officials and another US Marshal stand at the entrance of the school. Members of the media observe the scene from behind the fence at the foot of the Bunker Hill Monument. 0:01:49: V: An African American police officer is stationed at the corner of Monument Square and Concord Street. Shot of Concord Street. A group of white youth observe events at the school from across Monument Square. A girl sits on the fence watching the school. Three young men stand on the steps of a brownstone house on Monument Square. A group of police officers are stationed on Monument Square where the youth have gathered. Some members of the media stand at the foot of the Bunker Hill Monument. Shot of the Bunker Hill Monument. School buses and police motorcycle escorts remain parked in front of the school. Police radios are audible. Shots of Charlestown High School through the fence at the foot of the Bunker Hill Monument. 0:06:37: V: A police officer talks to school officials at the entrance of the school. Two white US Marshals and one African American US Marshal are gathered in front of the school. Police officials and a US Marshal confer at the corner of Monument Square and Bartlett Street. Police officers are stationed along Concord Street. Shot of the Bunker Hill Monument and the gathered media. 0:08:25: V: African American and white students exit the school together. Some white students walk away from the school. African American students and some white students head toward the buses. Shot of the exterior of Charlestown High School. A student makes a gesture of peace to the media. The video is overly bright during this scene. 0:12:02: V: Buses pull away from the school, followed by a police motorcycle and a police cruiser. White students are gathered at the corner of Concord and Bartlett Streets. Police officials leave the scene. Another group of white students is gathered on the corner of Bartlett Street and Monument Square. One girl makes a peace sign for the camera. Two police officers with riot helmets walk up the street. 0:14:24: V: Gary Griffith reports on the senatorial race in the second Suffolk district. He stands on a street corner. The Prudential Tower is visible in the distance. Griffith says that the election will be determined in the Democratic primary because there are no Republican or independent candidates; that the Democratic primary will take place in four days. Griffith makes a mistake in his delivery and does two more takes. The camera pans to Washington Street. Elevated train tracks run down the center of the street. Shot of the fire escape of a building on the corner of Washington Street. The windows of the building are boarded up. Shots of rowhouses and buildings along the street perpendicular to Washington Street. Shots of a garden behind a chain link fence. A colorful sign on the fence reads "Community Garden". Shot of the street and the Prudential Tower. Clothes are hanging out to dry on the fire escape of a building on the street. Shots of Washington Street and elevated train tracks. Shot of street sign for Washington Street. Shots of overgrown lot on the corner of Washington Street.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/09/1976
Description: Mayor Kevin White releases report on racial violence in Boston. He does not comment on the findings because he has not yet reviewed them. The report was written by a committee consisting of 13 diverse members, chaired by Speaker Thomas McGee and Judge David Nelson. They met ten times over two months to interview 17 community leaders, both supporters and opponents of busing.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 06/24/1976
Description: Review of the first few years of court ordered desgregation, including explosion of racism and violence, and the heavy police patrol required to keep things under control. Garrity is still in charge of the Boston schools. Although things are more quiet, and certain programs are working , like magnet schools, a high percentage of Boston students are still significantly under the national average. The Boston school system is also still overwhelmingly made up of minority students. Black parents propose ‘freedom of choice’ plan. Interviews with Robert Peterkin, Robert Spillane, and other officials. Classroom scenes of the current school system,highlighting Mildred Reed and her daughter Kim. They are Jamaica Plain residents, and Kim is bused to Brighton High School. Interview with Kim, where she talks about the benefits of being bused. Scenes of Kim getting on the bus, the bus ride, and in school.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 01/11/1984
Description: David Boeri reports that the US Circuit Court of Appeals has ruled that the Boston Public School System is desegregated. Boeri reports that the Marshall Elementary School is less racially integrated now than it was before court-ordered desegregation began in 1974. He notes that the school population was 50% white when the school opened in the 1970s; he adds that the school population is now 8% white. Boeri interviews Jack Wyatt (Teacher, Marshall Elementary School), Elaine Rundle (teacher, Marshall Elementary School) and Lou Tobaski (Principal, Marshall Elementary School) about school desegregation at the Marshall Elementary School. Boeri notes that there are no educational problems at the school. He adds that the school faculty has been successfully integrated. Boeri interviews Jane Bowden (parent). Bowden says that the school is excellent. Boeri notes that the school is not racially balanced but that it is in compliance with the court order. Boeri's report is accompanied by footage of students and teachers in classrooms at the Marshall Elementary School. This edition of the Ten O'Clock News also included the following item: Marcus Jones reports on integration at the Lee Elementary School Lee School is a successful integrated school
1:00:05: Visual: Footage of a white teacher singing a song with elementary school students in a classroom at the John Marshall Elementary School. Most of the students in the class are African American. Shot of a white male student in the classroom. David Boeri reports that the Marshall Elementary School opened 17 years ago as a neighborhood school; that 50% of the students were African American and 50% of the students were white when the school opened. Boeri notes that 8% of the school population is white in 1987. Boeri adds that the US Circuit Court of Appeals has ruled that the Marshall School is desegregated. V: Footage of Jack Wyatt (teacher, Marshall Elementary School) saying that the school is not racially balanced; that the school was racially balanced when it opened. Shot of a white male student standing at the front of the classroom. Footage of Elaine Rundle (teacher, Marshall Elementary School) saying that many of the bright African American students are bused to the suburbs through METCO (Metropolitan Council for Educational Opportunity). Shots of an African American teacher teaching to a classroom of African American students. Boeri reports that two buses transport children to and from the school; that one of the buses brings African American students to the school; that African Americans comprise 61% of the school's enrollment. V: Footage of Rundle saying that she does not know why African American students are bused to the school. Shot of African American students walking away from the school. Boeri says that there do not seem to be educational problems at the school. V: Footage of Boeri interviewing Jane Bowden (Marshall School parent). Bowden says that she did opposed busing at first; that she refused the opportunity to put her children in a different school. Bowden notes that the Marshall School is "excellent." Shot of Bowden's children getting into her car. Footage of Boeri interviewing Lou Tobaski (Principal, Marshall Elementary School). Tobaski says that the school has been able to convince the white parents to keep their children in the school; that the children are receiving a good education. Tobaski says that the school is mostly African American because the surrounding neighborhood has mostly African American residents. Boeri notes that African American and Hispanic residents have moved into the neighborhood surrounding the school. V: Footage of an African American teacher in a classroom with mostly African American students. Shots of individual students. Boeri notes that the school has received more money from the School Department because of desegregation; that the staff at the Marshall School is integrated. Boeri adds that the school is not racially balanced; that the school is in compliance with the court order. V: Footage of Tobaski saying that the Boston School Committee has done its best to integrate the public schools; that not much more can be done.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/29/1987
Description: Marcus Jones reports that Ione Malloy (author and teacher) has written a book about the busing crisis in Boston called Southie Won't Go. Jones notes that Malloy was a teacher at South Boston High School during the busing crisis. He adds that Malloy's book is based on her notes and journal entries from that time. Jones interviews Malloy on the front steps of South Boston High School. Malloy says that she lived in constant fear for her safety during the busing crisis at South Boston High School. She recalls a tense staff meeting in the wake of the stabbing of a white student at the school in 1974. Malloy reads a journal entry written at the time of the stabbing. Malloy says that she wrote about the situation as she experienced it. Malloy adds that students were sacrificed in the name of social ideas during the busing crisis. Jones notes that Malloy does not state her opinions outright in her book. He adds that her point of view comes across through her journal entries. Jones' report is accompanied by footage of school desegregation at South Boston High School in the 1970s.
1:00:05: Visual: Footage of Ione Malloy (author and teacher) being interviewed by Marcus Jones outside of South Boston High School. Malloy says that the children were sacrificed in the name of social ideas. Jones reports that Ione Malloy spoke to him today about her new book, Southie Won't Go. Jones reports that armed troops patrolled South Boston High School during the busing crisis; that students and faculty were in constant fear for their safety. V: Footage of African American students exiting buses outside of South Boston High School. A police officere stands on the school grounds. Footage of Malloy being interviewed by Jones. Malloy says that she was in constant fear during the busing crisis. Malloy that her editors told her that she used the word "afraid" too often in her book. Jones reports that Malloy now teaches at the Boston Latin School. V: Shot of Massachusetts State Troopers standing at the entrance of South Boston High School as students enter. Footage of Malloy being interviewed. Malloy says that students were sometimes too afraid to move from their seats. Jones reports that Malloy says that she has not returned to South Boston High School in nine years. Jones notes that Malloy says that her recollections of the tensions inside the school are still vivid. V: Shots of the exterior of South Boston High School; of Malloy and Jones sitting on the steps of the school. Jones reports that Malloy recalls a heated staff meeting called in response to the stabbing of a white student in December of 1974. Jones notes that the victim's name was Michael Faith. V: Shot of a newspaper article with a headline reading, "Eight South Boston district schools shut down after stabbing, crowd-police clash." Footage of Malloy being interviewed by Jones. Malloy says that an African American teacher stood up at the meeting to say that Faith got what he deserved. Malloy says that a white aide from South Boston stood up to say that the African American teacher should get what he deserves. Malloy says that another African American teacher stood up to say that no one deserves to be stabbed. Malloy says that she was shaking during the meeting. Jones reports that Malloy's work is in the form of a diary; that her book is a condensed version of her original notes. Jones notes that Malloy left out her own personal opinions of the events. V: Shot of Malloy and Jones looking through a scrapbook of newspaper clippings of the busing crisis. Jones reports that Malloy does not state her opinions outright; that her journal entries speak for themselves. V: Footage of Malloy and Jones on the steps of South Boston High School. Malloy reads a journal entry about the stabbing of Faith. Malloy says that writing in her journal was a catharsis at the time. Malloy says that she would like to see justice done by telling the truth of the events as she experienced them. Malloy says that people can compare her account of the events with the rulings and opinions of the court. Shot of Jones and Malloy sitting on the steps of the school.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 07/21/1986
Description: Interview with James Kelly, director of South Boston Information Center, about a demonstration at Carson Beach. He describes it as a visit by armed black militants from Columbia Point. Then he expounds on his strident views on busing and affirmative action. SBIC storefront and sign “Welcome to Boston. The city is occupied. A boycott exists. A tyrant reigns. Law is by decree. People are oppressed. The spirit of freedom still lives.” Kelly on the street, talking to a pedestrian. Kelly sitting at desk in back room answering phone.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 08/02/1977
Description: Children play in front of a house with a sign on the door reading "Remember Black Tuesday." The sign is emblematic of resistance to court-ordered busing in Boston. Older sister reads to younger children on steps.
1:00:00: Visual: Three young white children play on the steps of a house. A sign reading "Remember Black Tuesday" is posted on one of the doors. 1:00:34: V: An older white girl reads to two of the children on the steps of the house. Pam Bullard talks to one of the younger children, telling her to stay still for the camera. Close up shots of the younger children.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/09/1976
Description: South Boston High School headmaster Jerome Wynegar interviewed on end of federal receivership of his school. Calmly says he seldom encounters overt hostility. He expects no substantial change in programs and attitudes now that jurisdictional control has reverted to the city. Exteriors of South Boston Highs School, and shots of Wynegar outside the school. Several takes of the reporter standup. A very bitter and angry Robert Lunnin, member of the South Boston Marshals and the South Boston Information Center, interrupts reporter standup. Lunnin says Wynegar lies, exaggerates attendance; that resistance to forced busing comes from both students and parents; that desegregation will never work “especially with the housing situation” (referring to effort to integrate blacks into public housing). He vehemently pronounces “forced busing.”
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 08/30/1978
Description: Martin Nolan (Boston Globe) organizes a discussion during a Town Meeting on Race and Class at the John F. Kennedy Library. The meeting is held in honor of the release of J. Anthony Lukas's novel, Common Ground. The novel is about the busing crisis in Boston. Paul Parks (former Massachusetts Secretary for Education) comments on the lack of effective communication between the two opposing sides during the busing crisis. Parks says that he is saddened to hear a desire for separatism in the remarks of Moe Gillen (Charlestown community activist). Jim Conway (Charlestown resident) defends Gillen by saying that Gillen believes in neighborhood schools. Conway advocates school desegregation through school choice; he talks about the need to improve all of the schools across the city. Conway adds that Charlestown does not deserve its reputation as a racist neighborhood. Howard Husock (WGBH reporter) comments that parents are concerned about the education of their children. Husock talks about the benefits of a school choice plan, which could attract middle-class families back to the public schools. Elvira "Pixie" Palladino (former member, Boston School Committee) remarks that there are few members of the anti-busing movement at the meeting. Palladino says that the busing crisis only affected poor people in Boston. She adds that no "common ground" will be found until working-class white people are included in forums such as this one. Palladino asks how many people in the room respect and love her and the people she represents. Wayne Twymon (member of the Twymon family portrayed in Common Ground) talks about his experiences as an African American student attending white schools. He says that it was not easy being bused into white schools. Twymon adds that he received a good education and has been successful. Twymon tells Palladino that he loves her. Tom Lindbergh (graduate student, Boston University) asks Father Michael Groden (Archdiocese of Boston) if the Archdiocese of Boston will admit to serving as a haven for white families looking to escape forced busing. Lindbergh accuses the Archdiocese of Boston of profiting from school desegregation. Groden responds that the Archdiocese tightened its student transfer policy after the first year of busing. He adds that parochial schools also admit minority students. Panelists at the meeting include Jack Beatty (Senior Editor, Atlantic Monthly), Thomas Brown (Professor, University of Massachusetts), Marie Clarke (parent and member of the Home and School Association), Moe Gillen (Charlestown community activist), Father Michael Groden (Archdiocese of Boston), Robert Kiley (former Deputy Mayor of Boston), Theodore Landsmark (attorney), Sandra Lynch (former general counsel to the State Department of Education), Kim Marshall (Director of Curriculum, Boston Public Schools), Reverend Charles Stith (Union United Methodist Church), and Thomas Winship (former editor, Boston Globe). Tape 4 of 8.
1:00:00: Visual: Martin Nolan (The Boston Globe) pauses for a break during the Town Meeting on Race and Class at the John F. Kennedy Library. The town meeting is held in honor of the release of the book Common Ground by J. Anthony Lukas (author) . Nolan speaks from a podium. Panelists are assembled at tables on either side of the podium. Panelists include Jack Beatty (Senior Editor, The Atlantic Monthly), Thomas Brown (Professor, University of Massachusetts), Marie Clarke (parent and member of the Home and School Association), Moe Gillen (Charlestown community activist), Father Michael Groden (Archdiocese of Boston), Robert Kiley (former Deputy Mayor of Boston), Theodore Landsmark (attorney), Sandra Lynch (former general counsel to the State Department of Education), Kim Marshall (Director of Curriuulum, Boston Public Schools), Reverend Charles Stith (Union United Methodist Church), and Thomas Winship (former editor, The Boston Globe). 1:00:07: V: Nolan organizes a discussion between audience members and panelists. Paul Parks (former Massachusetts Secretary for Education) comments that the tragedy of the busing crisis was that people were unable to hear or understand the positions of their opponents; that neither side was communicating effectively with the other side. Parks says that he is sorry that Gillen has departed. Parks says that he heard a desire for "separatism" in Gillen's remarks. Parks says that he hopes that his children will reap the benefits of living in an integrated society. The audience applauds. Jim Conway (Charlestown resident) says that he cannot speak for Gillen; that Gillen was not a "separatist"; that Gillen was an opponent of "forced busing." Conway says that Gillen would not be opposed to achieving desegregation through school choice. Conway adds that Charlestown is unjustly perceived as racist by outsiders; that the first African American justice in the North sat in the Charlestown District Court in 1883. Conway notes that African American students attended Charlestown High School before the busing crisis; that there were no racial incidents at the school before the busing crisis. Conway says that the busing crisis "pitted the poor black against the poor white"; that only "the bigots" among both races were seeking confrontation. Conway says that Gillen was not "talking separatism"; that Gillen was expressing his belief in neighborhood schools. Conway says that he sent his children to private school because they were not going to receive a good education "at the end of the bus line"; that he is not sure if African American children are receiving a good education at Charlestown High School. Conway says that the schools need to be improved; that "liberal whites" are the first to abandon the schools at any sign of trouble. Conway mentions a "liberal" city official who moved out of Charlestown during the busing crisis so that he could send his children to a good school. The audience applauds politely after Conway finishes his remarks. 1:05:52: V: Howard Husock (WBGH reporter) says that he lives in Brookline, where his son can walk to the neighborhood school. Husock says that he would like to speak for those who are "vilified as yuppies." Husock says that he attended a meeting of nursery school parents in West Roxbury last year; that the parents were trying to plot a "strategy" about where to send their children to school; that the parents were looking at the racial quotas at each school; that some parents were considering paying tuition to send their children to public schools in Brookline. Husock says that the parents were only thinking about how to get a good education for their children. Husock asks if the school choice plan can be adapted in order to attract the influx of new middle class families to Boston. Husock says that it would be sad if a "new generation" of residents abandons the schools. Nolan says that the question will be put on hold until Dr. Laval Wilson (Superintendent, Boston Public Schools) can speak. 1:08:19: V: Elvira "Pixie" Palladino (former member, Boston School Committee) takes the microphone. Palladino says that she would like to address Groden's comments about love and "this so-called common ground." Palladino says that there is very little "common ground" in the room; that she only recognizes three people from the anti-busing movement. Palladino says that the anti-busing movement is not represented in the audience; that she does not see any "common ground." Palladino asks the audience, "How many of you are going to love me no matter what color I am?" Palladino refers to an African American man in the audience. She says that the man would not introduce himself to her after addressing her as she passed by him. Palladino says that the man did not show her respect; that there is little evidence of respect among the audience members. Palladino says that she does not see anyone in the audience who would stand up to say, "Pixie, I love you." The audience laughs along with Palladino. An audience member calls out, "Pixie, I'll say it." Pixie acknowledges the audience member. Palladino says that she does not have to read the book because she lived the book. Palladino says that "the common ground" in Boston is found in every parent's love for their children. Palladino says that African American parents supported the court order because they thought it was the right thing for their children; that the members of the anti-busing movement thought that they were doing the right thing; that both sides fought "with their minds and with their hearts." Palladino asks how many audience members make $11,000 per year. Palladino says that there is not one audience member who is as poor as the residents of Charlestown and South Boston. Audience members make noises of disagreement. Palladino says that forced busing only affected the poor; that busing remains a class issue. Palladino says that racism "is a two-way street." Palladino says working class white people need to be included in the audience at the town meeting; that no "common ground" will be found until the interests of working class white people are represented in meetings like this one. Palladino says that "common ground" currently exists only in parents' love for their children. The audience sits silently. Palladino asks why she gets no applause. The audience applauds as Palladino asks how many of them are going to kiss her and shake her hand after the meeting. The audience laughs along with Palladino. 1:12:41: V: Wayne Twymon (member of the Twymon family portrayed in Common Ground) starts to speak. He tells Palladino that he loves her. Twymon says that he rode the bus to school for two years before the court orders; that he learned what it was like to be "black in a black neighborhood" and what it was like to be " black in a white neighborhood." Twymon says that he was "running from whites" before the court order; that now he is here talking to whites. Twymon says that he attended the Dearborn School, Brighton High School, East Boston High School and parochial school; that he received a good education at each school. Twymon says that it was not easy for an African American to attend a white school. Twymon notes that his mother bused him to white schools before Arthur Garrity (federal judge) did. The audience laughs and claps for Twymon. Twymon stands with both hands on his hips. Twymon says that he made more than $11,000 last year without "a name or a title." Twymon adds that Lukas' book has created a "common ground" in this room. Twymon says that he has not finished the book yet. Twymon gestures to Colin Diver (member of the Diver family portrayed in Common Ground). Twymon says that he was amazed by Diver; that Diver turned down a high-paying job in order to take a job for the "experience." Twymon tells Palladino that he visited the State House in 11th grade through a school program. Twymon tells Palladino that he had wanted to meet her, but that she did not show up. Palladino protests that she never "shirked her responsibilities" as a public official. Twymon and Palladino both speak at the same time. The moderator steps in. Twymon tells Palladino that he is pleased to meet her today. The audience applauds. 1:16:05: V: Tom Lindbergh (graduate student, Boston University) notes that he is a former high school teacher in Milton. Lindbergh says that he worked as a teacher in the Boston Public Schools for two years; that the Boston Public Schools had a student population of 96,000 in 1974; that the student population was 70% white. Lindbergh notes that the student population now hovers at 58,000; that the student population is 70% non-white. Lindbergh asks Groden if the Archidiocese of Boston will take responsibility for its mostly white parochial school system, which serves as a haven for those who wish to escape busing. Groden says that Lukas writes about the role of the parochial schools in the busing crisis in Common Ground. Lukas says that the parochial schools should have been more stringent in preventing transfers of students from public schools in order to escape busing. Groden notes that the Catholic Church has a right to operate schools to serve their religious beliefs. Groden says that many white students were able to attend parochial schools in neighboring communities; that the church's rules covering student transfers did not apply to those schools during the first year. Groden says that the church corrected the policy during the second year of busing. Groden says that parochial schools in Boston also provide opportunities and programs for minority students; that the parochial schools do contribute to life in minority communities. Lindbergh notes that parochial schools were closing down in 1972 due to a lack of funds; that there are now waiting lists to attend parochial schools. Lindbergh says that there are 115,000 students in parochial schools. He asks how many of those students are African American. Lindbergh says that the church needs to be held accountable for the large numbers of white students in parochial schools.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/28/1985
Description: David Boeri reports that E.W. Jackson is the manager of WLVG radio station in Cambridge and the pastor of the New Corner Baptist Church in Roxbury. Jackson addressed a community meeting in South Boston last night about the city's public housing desegregation plan. He attacked atheism, school busing, and seat belt laws in his speech, and called the city's housing desegregation plan a form of "social engineering." Interview with Jackson in the studios of WLVG. He discusses public housing integration and says that "freedom of choice" is more important than integrated developments. Boeri reports that Boston City Councilors James Kelly and Dapper O'Neil are leading the fight against the desegregation plan, but that interest in the issue is waning among South Boston residents. Interview with Neil Sullivan, policy advisor to mayor Ray Flynn, who helped develop the housing desegregation plan. Sullivan says that elements of choice have been preserved in the city's new public housing policy.
1:00:13: Visual: Shots of a light outside of the studio door at WLVG radio station; of a record by Amy Grant spinning on a turntable inside of the studio. Music plays on the soundtrack. David Boeri reports that E.W. Jackson is the manager of WLVG, a gospel radio station in Cambridge. V: Shots of Jackson in the offices of WLVG. Shots of a record spinning on a turntable; of the WLVG logo on a piece of paper. Audio of Jackson talking to a disc jockey about the playlist. Shot of Jackson in the studio. Boeri reports that Jackson is also the pastor of the New Corner Baptist Church in Roxbury; that Jackson visited a community meeting in South Boston last night; that 350 white residents attended the meeting. V: Shot of Jackson addressing a community meeting in South Boston on July 12, 1988. Members of the audience stand to applaud for him. Footage of Jackson ad dressing the meeting. Jackson says that South Boston residents have been "dumped on" by city leaders. Footage of Jackson sitting behind a desk, being interviewed by Boeri. Jackson chuckles when Boeri asks him if he had ever imagined bringing an audience of South Boston residents to their feet. Shots of Jackson addressing the community meeting. Boeri reports that Jackson attacked atheism, school busing, and seat belt laws in his speech at the meeting in South Boston. Boeri says that Jackson called the city's plan to desegregate public housing is an example of "social engineering." V: Shots of audience members at the community meeting. Footage of Jackson addressing the meeting. Jackson says that he can understand why the people of South Boston do not want bureaucrats telling them how to live their lives. The audience applauds. Boeri reports that James Kelly (Boston City Council) and Dapper O'Neil (Boston City Council) are leading the fight against the city's desegregation plan for public housing; that interest in the struggle may be waning among South Boston residents. V: Shot of Jackson addressing the meeting. O'Neil sits beside the podium. Kelly is visible behind Jackson. Shot of empty seats at the back of the room. Footage of Boeri asking Jackson if he thinks he might have been "used" by Kelly and O'Neil. Jackson quotes the Bible as saying that it is good to be used for a good cause. Footage of Neil Sullivan (Policy Advisor to Mayor Ray Flynn) being interviewed by Boeri. Sullivan says that the attending the community meeting is a good way to get on television. Boeri reports that Sullivan says that Jackson has confused the issues. V: Footage of Jackson saying that tenants must be able to choose where they want to live; that freedom of choice is more important than integrated developments. Footage of Sullivan saying that the city's plan tries to preserve elements of choice in the new housing plan. Footage of Jackson saying that affordable and adequate housing is needed in every neighborhood. Footage of Sullivan saying that the city of Boston is working harder than any other major city on the issue of affordable housing. Footage of Jackson leaving the stage at the community meeting. Jackson shakes hands with several attendees of the meeting. Boeri reports that Jackson may have forged a new alliance with South Boston residents.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 07/13/1988
Description: Carmen Fields interviews Dr. Kenneth Clark (psychologist). Fields reports that Clark and his Mamie Phipps Clark (psychologist) performed studies using dolls to gauge ego and self-esteem in young African American children. Fields notes that the Clarks' research influenced the Supreme Court's 1953 landmark decision on school desegregation. Clark talks about his research, saying that African American children rejected the brown dolls because they had internalized society's negative stereotypes of African Americans. Clark discusses the use of the study by NAACP lawyers in the 1953 school desegregation case. Clark talks about the importance of school desegregation and the need for white and African American children to grow up with self-respect and respect for others. He says that children must be taught to act humanely toward others. Fields' report includes footage from the 1959 film Imitation of Life and footage from Eyes on the Prize. Fields' report also includes footage of school desegregation in South Boston and shots of dolls. Sound cuts out at the very end of the video.
1:00:10: Visual: Shot of a display of dolls and toys. Carmen Fields reports that Dr. Kenneth Clark (psychologist) and the late Mamie Phipps Clark (psychologist) used dolls in a 1939 psychological experiment; that the Clarks used dolls to gauge ego and self esteem in young African American children. Fields notes that the results of the experiments shocked the nation. V: Shots of Kenneth Clark being interviewed by Fields. Shots of a white doll; of an African American doll. Footage of Clark talking about how African American children internalize society's negative stereotypes of African Americans. Clark says that two out of three African American children rejected the brown dolls. Footage from the 1959 film, Imitation of Life. Footage of Clark saying that the children were forced to identify with the brown dolls they had rejected. Fields reports that the Supreme Court's 1953 decision on school desegregation was influenced by the Clarks' research. V: Shot of the exterior of the Supreme Court Building in Washington D.C. Footage of Clark saying that NAACP lawyers were interested in the study; that NAACP found parallels between the results of the study and the effects of segregated schools on African American chiildren. Fields reports that school desegregation has been accomplished in both southern and northern cities. V: Black and white footage from Eyes On the Prize. Shots of an African American girl being accompanied into a school; of the National Guard running in formation; of African American students entering a school; of an African American female student in a classroom; of an African American man walking with two white men. Shots of school buses pulling up to the front of South Boston High School in 1974; of South Boston residents jeering at the buses. Shots of police officers lined up on a streeet outside of a Charlestown Housing Project. Fields notes that Clark blames low self-esteem for many of today's educational problems including high drop-out rates and violence. V: Footage of Clark being interviewed by Fields. Clark says that society's problems cannot be solved by laws and court cases; that churches have not influenced people to act more humanely toward others. Clark says that children must be educated to act in a humane manner. Fields asks Clark how he responds to people who believe that desegregation did not work. Clark says that desegregation has never really been tried; that schools are still organized along racial lines. Clark says that schools are not set up to teach children to respect others. Fields asks if the doll study is still relevant today. Clark says that both white African American children need help in developing positive self-images in today's society. Shots of students in an integrated classroom; of white students in the classroom. Footage of Clark saying that racism is indicative of a lack of self-respect. Clark says that dolls can be used to communicate a sense of humanity and decency. Shots of white and African American dolls. Footage of Clark saying that some African American children in his doll study had good role models; that those children did not reject the brown dolls. Clark says that children can be taught to respect themselves and others.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 10/18/1988
Description: Mix of sound and silent footage. Preparations for the Clamshell Alliance Seabrook Occupation, a protest of the Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant. Man reads list of rules for peaceful occupation. Closeups of license plates and bumper stickers. Cathy Wolff holds press conference on international support for the demonstration, the nonviolence civil disobedience training received by the protesters, and direct action that might take place after the occupation. Man speaks at press conference on the need to protect the salt marsh area being bulldozed by construction. Silent footage of crowds at occupation. Helicopter flies overhead. Silent footage of the salt marshes and wildlife. Protest march towards Seabrook site, singing and chanting. Interviews with protesters. Police officer directs protesters. Occupation site and activities. Interview with occupation organizer. Protesters talk publicly with police officers about the arrest procedure that is likely occur. Police announce over megaphone that protesters who don't vacate will be arrested and charged with trespassing. Protesters are peacefully arrested. Interviews with protesters on getting arrested. School buses drive away loaded with arrested protesters. Crowds applaud arrested protesters as bus drives by.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 05/1977
Description: Pam Bullard interviews Marion Fahey (Superintendent, Boston Public Schools). Fahey talks about the assignment of bus monitors and school aides for the coming school year. Fahey explains the roles of transitional aides, security aides and instructional aides. She says that there will also be more special needs aides and bilingual aides in the schools. Fahey comments on the need for all students to attend school in order to learn basic skills. She says that parents should be confident in the educational programs at the Boston public schools. Tape 2 of 2.
0:00:13: Visual: Pam Bullard interviews Marion Fahey (Superintendent, Boston Public Schools) in her office. Fahey sits behind her desk. Fahey says that bus monitors will ride the buses with students again this year; that parents have made it clear that they want bus monitors on the buses with their children. Fahey says that there will be just as many aides this year as in previous years; that there will be fewer transitional aides in the school buildings; that transitional aides will perform duties assigned to them by the headmasters of the schools. Fahey says that the transitional aides will be supplemented by security aides from the Safety and Security Department; that the security aides have additional training in dealing with crises. Fahey says that there will be many instructional aides in the classrooms; that instructional aides will be funded under Title I of the Emergency School Assistance Act; that instructional aides will work with elementary and middle school students in reading and math. Fahey says that there will be bilingual aides as well as aides for the special needs programs in the schools. Bullard asks Fahey what she would tell parents who are skeptical about the quality of the Boston Public Schools. Fahey says that it is important for parents to send their children to school; that parents who keep their children out of school are condemning their children to an unproductive future. Fahey says that the Boston Public Schools have strong educational programs; that school faculty and staff are always working to improve school programs; that students in the Boston Public Schools receive good instruction in basic skills like reading, math and communication. Bullard closes the interview. 0:04:53: V: Bullard and Fahey speak informally. Fahey says that Boston schools are no longer in the "numbers game." Fahey notes that the focus is no longer on desegregation; that her staff is focusing on assessing the performance of students and teachers; that the tension caused by school desegregation hindered classroom learning. Shot of a spreadsheet on Fahey's desk. The spreadsheet gives the racial breakdown of students in each grade level.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/07/1976
Description: Pam Bullard interviews Kathleen Sullivan (Boston School Committee) about the quality of education in Boston. Sullivan says that she is frustrated because Boston schools have not improved since court-ordered desegregation began in 1974. Sullivan calls Arthur Garrity (federal judge) a "crazy judge." Sullivan says that the desegregation plans since 1974 have been disruptive. She says that neither African American nor white students have benefitted from school desegregation; that students should not be assigned to different schools each year. Sullivan and her assistant discuss Judge Garrity's latest order concerning the Boston schools. Bullard explains to Sullivan that she is putting together a piece which contrasts Sullivan's views on schools and court-ordered desegregation with the views of African American leader Melnea Cass
0:59:44: V: Pam Bullard interviews Kathleen Sullivan in her office. Bullard comments that Sullivan was elected to the School Committee because voters were impressed with her commitment to quality education and better schools. Bullard asks Sullivan how she would have fared if voters were less concerned with the state of the schools and more concerned with politics as usual. Sullivan says that she could have been re-elected. Sullivan says that parents are concerned about education; that a difficult economy coupled with the costs of school desegregation has made school improvement difficult. Sullivan says that the quality of education has not improved in the city since she was elected to the School Committee; that she feels frustrated in her efforts to improve the schools. 1:03:48: V: Bullard asks if it would damage Sullivan politically to admit that desegregation has improved Boston schools. Sullivan says that voters in Boston are beginning to accept desegregation as a fact; that the anti-busing movement has lost steam because people are tired; that voters would be happy to hear that schools have improved, even if the improvement was a direct result of desegregation and a "crazy judge on the scene." Sullivan says that there has been little improvement except in a few schools. Sullivan mentions that Roxbury High School, the Lewenberg School and the Curley School have seen improvement. Bullard asks why Sullivan never mentions the positive impact that desegregation has had on African American students, who now have access to an equal education. Sullivan says that she has been preoccupied with the budget this year; that she visited last year with African American students who had been assigned to three different schools in three years, and had not benefitted from the experience. Sullivan says that the school situation has begun to stabilize this year; that one can begin to talk about better education for African American students this year; that police presence in schools and community hostility to busing prevented a healthy school situation for African American students in 1974 and 1975; that she understands why African American parents might disagree with her because they wanted access to better schools for their children. Sullivan says that she hopes schools can be improved for all students; that she is worried because only 51,000 children attended Boston Public Schools last year, out of a school-age population of 117,000. Sullivan says that she taught African American students in Dorchester; that she thinks desegregation has been disruptive for those students; that the desegregation of Boston schools could have been beneficial for African American students and white students in 1974 and 1975 if it had been implemented differently. 1:10:34: V: An administrative assistant enters Sullivan's office to go over some papers with her. The assistant points out that Judge Garrity has ordered the School Committee to appoint a new Transitional Director of Program Development at South Boston High School. Sullivan and the assistant discuss Garrity's instructions. Sullivan and her assistant tell Bullard that Judge Garrity has approved 160 transfers out of 1,782 requests. Sullivan alludes to Garrity's heavy involvement in managing the Boston schools. 1:12:57: V: Bullard explains to Sullivan how she will edit the final piece. Shots of Sullivan's office. Bullard explains that she has also interviewed Melnea Cass (African American community leader) and wants the final piece to reflect the positions of the two women. Bullard says that both women are leaders, but that their positions on school desegregation reflect their ethnic heritage; that their positions are as far apart as the communities they represent. Sullivan points out that she has done a lot of work with African American students. Bullard says that Sullivan and Cass have a good working relationship because neither harbors strong racial prejudices; that both have friends of other races and backgrounds.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/28/1976
Description: Hope Kelly reports on school desegregation in Lowell. Kelly notes that the minority student population in the Lowell Public Schools has doubled over the past ten years. She adds that Lowell has become a magnet for immigrants from Southeast Asia. Kelly interviews students in the Lowell public schools about school desegregation. Kelly interviews Jane Mullen (guidance counselor) about the diversity of the school population. Kelly notes that students are currently bused in order to achieve racial balance in the schools. She reports that opponents of school desegregation are fighting for neighborhood schools. Kelly reviews the racial breakdown of the student population at the Bartlett School in Lowell. Kelly's report is accompanied by footage of ethnically diverse students in a classroom and school cafeteria. Kelly's report also includes footage of a bilingual class and footage of the Merrimac River. This edition of the Ten O'Clock News also included the following item: Marcus Jones reports on school desegregation in Lynn, Massachusetts
1:00:07: Visual: Shots of industrial machinery in operation; of children playing at a playground; of industrial buildings; of two women sitting on a park bench; of historic buildings in Lowell; of a child looking out from a window of an apartment building; of the Merrimac River running through Lowell. Hope Kelly reports that tension in the city of Lowell stems from school desegregation. V: Shots of a bird on the shore of the Merrimac River; of an old brick building; of the water of the Merrimac River. Footage of a white female student saying that adults want students to be able to choose which schools to attend. Footage of a white male student sitting with an Asian American female student. The white male student says that adults are arguing about politics and where kids of different races should go to school. Shots of a students getting lunch in a school cafeteria. Footage of a Latino male student saying that it is good for students to meet different people from different backgrounds. Shots of students boarding a school bus. Kelly reports that opponents of school desegregation in Lowell are arguing for neighborhood schools. V: Shots of an African American female student in the cafeteria; of Asian American students in the school cafeteria. Footage of students in a classroom in the Bartlett School in Lowell. Shots of individual students. Most of the students are Asian American. Kelly reports that the student population of the Bartlett School in Lowell is 20% Latino and 25% Asian American. Kelly notes that the minority population in Lowell Public Schools has doubled in the past ten years; that the schools enroll 450 new bilingual students each year; that 100 new Southeast Asian immigrants come to Lowell every week. V: Shot of an Asian teacher in a third- and fourth-grade Cambodian bilingual classroom. The teacher teaches a lesson to the students. Footage of Mary Jane Mullen (guidance counselor) giving Kelly a tour of the school. Mullen says that there was a large Latino population in the school ten years ago; that there is still a significant Latino population; that there were many Greek-speaking students at the school ten years ago; that there are no longer many Greek-speaking students at the school. Footage of an Asian male student named Paul, who says that he is not very good at reading books; that homework is hard. Kelly reports that Paul is one of 160 Southeast Asian students at the Bartlett School. Footage of Kelly interviewing a group of students sitting at a table. A white male student talks about how people used to come to Lowell to work in the mills. Shots of a mill building with broken windows; of a renovated mill building. Kelly reports that Lowell has always had a significant immigrant population; that buses bring children to schools across the city in order to achieve a racial balance. Shots of students standing outside of a school building.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 10/23/1987
Description: Pam Bullard interviews teachers Hugh Mullen and Terry Gaskill about racial tension and disturbances at Hyde Park High School. The teachers say that incidents occur in the hallways, bathrooms and cafeteria, but not in the classrooms. They discuss requests made by Hyde Park High School faculty to the school administration upon the reopening of the school after a racial disturbance. Mullen says that the school faculty has requested that outside community groups stay out of the schools until the situation is under control. Tape 2 of 2.
0:00:14: Visual: Pam Bullard interviews a white teacher, Hugh Mullen, and an African American teacher, Terry Gaskill, about racial tension at Hyde Park High School. Gaskill says that every student has grown up with racial prejudice; that most students do not want to get into trouble; that emotions run high when trouble begins and students are drawn in to the situation. Mullen says that most of the trouble happens in the hallways and bathrooms; that the atmosphere is calm in the classrooms and the gym. Gaskill adds that two fights have occurred this year in the gym; that neither stemmed from racial tensions. Mullen says that the Hyde Park High School Faculty Senate has asked for a stronger police presence and for more aides in the school building; that the school administration has granted their requests; that he hopes the school can be peaceful without police officers on duty. Pam Bullard talks informally to the teachers while the crew takes cutaway shots. Mullen says that there has been little interference from parents; that African American parents have had meetings since last week's racial disturbance; that he does not know what has come out of the school administration's meetings with parents. Mullen says that the faculty has requested outside community groups to stay out of the school until the situation is under control.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/13/1976
Description: Meg Vaillancourt interviews Robert Peterkin (Superintendent, Cambridge Public Schools) about school desegregation in Boston. Peterkin reviews desegregation in Boston, both the positive and negative outcomes. He talks about the challenges that lie ahead for desegregation. Peterkin discusses his belief in the potential for educational innovation and quality in a minority school system, stating that quality education will desegregate schools more effectively than a court order. He discusses the difficulties in moving from a "numerical desegregation" plan to a "freedom of choice" plan and notes that the Cambridge Public School System desegregated its schools through a "freedom of choice" plan. Peterkin says that busing was necessary to desegregate the Boston school system; notes that the city had been given opportunities to explore other desegregation models; that the resistance to busing was very strong. Peterkin discusses the magnet school concept and the need to institute valuable educational programs at every school. Peterkin talks about the problems with the court-ordered desegregation plan in Boston, but says that the positive result of equal access to the schools far outweighs the negative results. Peterkin discusses the prospect of more students returning to Boston schools in the future. Peterkin says that Arthur Garrity (federal judge) should end his supervision of Boston's schools; that the Boston School Department is able to assume the responsibility of continued desegregation of the schools, but that safeguards are required to prevent a return to discriminatory practices. Peterkin discusses his perceptions of what Martin Luther King would have thought about school desegregation in Boston.
1:00:02: Visual: Meg Vaillancourt interviews Robert Peterkin (Superintendent, Cambridge Public Schools) about school desegregation in Boston. Vaillancourt asks Peterkin to review desegregation in Boston. Peterkin says that school desegregation has given minority students access to better school programs; that school desegregation opened up the Boston Public School System. Peterkin talks about partnerships between the school system and businesses and universities in the community. Peterkin mentions the cooperation between the school system and human services agencies. Peterkin says that school desegregation exposed the educational shortcomings of the system. Peterkin says that school desegregation is still a difficult issue in Boston; that white and middle-class students have abandoned the school system; that the population of the Boston schools is overwhelmingly minority. Peterkin says that the desegregation effort needs to focus on educational programs; that Robert Spillane (Superintendent, Boston Public Schools) is focusing more on educational reform; that parents support the renewed focus on educational programs. Vaillancourt asks Peterkin if improvements in education are possible with a minority student population and an overwhelmingly white city government. Peterkin says that he resents the implication that educational innovation and quality are not possible in a minority school system. Peterkin notes that the school system must spend their resources wisely; that the quality of education will determine whether or not students will attend; that quality education will desegregate schools more effectively than a court order. 1:05:00: V: Vaillancourt asks Peterkin's opinion on the "freedom of choice" proposal. Peterkin says that the "freedom of choice" plan will not work until the quality of education improves in all schools across the city; that there is varying quality among the schools in Boston; that each neighborhood school needs to offer strong educational programs. Peterkin says that it will be difficult to switch from a "numerical desegregation" plan to a "freedom of choice" plan; that the "freedom of choice" plan will require an enormous leap of faith for the minority community and the court. Peterkin mentions that the Cambridge Public School System desegregated its schools through a "freedom of choice" plan. Vaillancourt asks Peterkin if busing was necessary for desegregation in Boston. Peterkin says that busing was necessary at the time; that the city had been given opportunities to explore other desegregation models; that the resistance to busing was very strong. Peterkin says that Arthur Garrity (federal judge) made efforts to improve the schools through magnet programs and partnerships with businesses; that parents are more willing to bus their children to a school with strong educational programs. Vaillancourt asks Peterkin if all schools should be follow the magnet school model. Peterkin says that there must be an effort to institute valuable educational programs in every school; that parents will send there children to schools with sound educational programs; that it is not necessary to make every school a magnet school. Vaillancourt asks about the problems with the court-ordered desegregation plan in Boston. Peterkin says that the schools were ignored recently by city officials and the community in the late 1970s and early 1980s; that many residents and city officials did not pay attention to the schools because of a fiscal crisis and low attendance; that a declining school system can adversely affect the whole city. Peterkin says that a reduced student population was a negative result of school desegregation; that the positive result of equal access to the schools far outweighs the negative result. 1:11:24: V: Vaillancourt asks Peterkin if students will return to the schools. Peterkin says that there has been a renewed commitment to the schools in the past few years; that improvements in the educational programs will prompt younger parents to consider sending their children to the Boston Public Schools. Peterkin notes that the decline in attendance has leveled off. Vaillancourt asks Peterkin if Garrity should end his supervision of the schools. Peterkin says that Garrity should end his supervision; that the Boston School Department is able to assume the responsibility of continued desegregation of the schools. Peterkin says that there need to be some safeguards in the system to prevent a return to discriminatory practices. Peterkin says that flexible guidelines must be established to guarantee the percentages of children in neighborhood schools; that educational standards must be guaranteed. Vaillancourt asks Peterkin what Martin Luther King would have thought about school desegregation in Boston. Peterkin says that King would have been disheartened by the violence and turmoil resulting from school desegregation; that King would have been encouraged by the positive changes in the system and in the city. The crew takes cutaway shots of Vaillancourt and Peterkin. Peterkin and Vaillancourt speak informally about the state of schools in Boston.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 03/17/1983
Description: Judy Stoia interviews Elvira "Pixie" Palladino about her reaction to the Supreme Court's refusal to hear arguments against court-ordered busing in Boston. She is angry about the decision and calls the members of the court a "pack of flaming liberals." Palladino urges the anti-busing movement to continue their protest through legitimate means, like demonstrations and picketing, without resorting to violence. Palladino says that the anti-busing movement will pressure elected officials to redress the grievances of the anti-busing movement. Palladino notes that she is more concerned with a politician's stance on busing than with his or her political party; that she would switch to the Republican Party if the party came out against busing. Palladino says that she is opposed to all forms of busing, including a metropolitian busing plan. Palladino accuses the courts of dictating to parents how they should raise their children; she says that forced busing in Boston represents "reverse discrimination."
0:34:47: Visual: Elvira "Pixie" Palladino is interviewed as she sits behind a table. She says that she is disappointed in the Supreme Court's refusal to hear arguments against court-ordered busing in Boston; that the Supreme Court is a "pack of flaming liberals" and "out of touch with reality"; that she would expect to hear about this kind of "judicial oppression" in the USSR, Cuba or China; that the "shocking" decision will result in increased "white flight" from Boston schools; that the Supreme Court is more interested in redressing the grievances of criminals than law-abiding citizens. Pam Bullard asks Palladino if this is the end of anti-busing action in the courts. Palladino says that they are waiting for an appeal to be heard on the receivership of South Boston High School; that she hopes the court will void the receivership of South Boston High School. Palladino says that the Supreme Court decision will probably result in further resistance to busing; that the anti-busing movement needs to unite in demonstrating against busing through whatever means are left open to them; that the anti-busing movement must concentrate on furthering anti-busing legislation and on electing officials who take an anti-busing position. 0:38:49: V: Bullard asks Palladino about being elected to public office through an anti-busing campaign. Palladino says that government is no longer "of, for and by" the people; that government is now "to" the people; that citizens must be vigilant in protecting their rights; that citizens must elect officials who represent their position on the issues. Bullard asks what recourse anti-busers have if the courts can strike down anti-busing legislation. Palladino says a grass-roots movement could unite the people and put pressure on elected officials. Bullard asks Palladino about the court case concerning Wilmington, Delaware (Evans v. Buchanan), in which suburbs could be forced to integrate their schools. Palladino says that she is opposed to metropolitanization; that she is opposed to forced busing in any form; that forced busing is a failed social experiment. Bullard quotes Palladino as saying that she would not be surprised if anti-busers reacted to the decision in a disruptive manner. Palladino says that she is opposed to violence in any form; that she has received sympathetic calls from anti-busers in Akron, Ohio and Tulsa, Oklahoma; that she is interested in organizing a "constructive" anti-busing reaction. Palladino says again that she would not be surprised if anti-busers react negatively to the decision; that anti-busers may be called on to act as "patriots" to save democracy; that she would like anti-busers to demonstrate their feelings through all legitimate means available. Palladino says that she has never committed an act of violence in her life; that the people of South Boston and Charlestown have been pushed to their limit; that no relief is in sight for the people. 0:43:51: V: Bullard asks Palladino if she feels conflicted as a public official, who must ask her constituents to obey a law she believes is wrong. Palladino says that she is not asking her constituents to do anything illegal; that demonstrating through legitimate means is a legal right; that anti-busers must demonstrate legally, work to further legislation and vote their consciences at the ballot box; that some parents have kept their children out of school for two years; that she fears for the safety of her own children. Palladino says that the government is denying people the basic right to raise their children as they see fit; that the Supreme Court should not dictate where parents send their children to school; that the situation in Boston is a blatant case of "reverse discrimination". Bullard asks Palladino if the anti-busing movement will lobby Tip O'Neill to their cause. Reporter notes that O'Neill will be the new Speaker of the US House of Representatives. Palladino says that O'Neill has not been receptive to the anti-busing movement in the past; that pressure will be brought to bear upon him to represent the anti-busing majority in Boston. Palladino says that voters are crucial to the careers of politicians. Bullard asks Palladino about her voting preferences. Palladino says that she has always voted for the Democratic party; that she would switch to the Republican party if they were to come out against forced busing; that a candidate's position on busing is more important than his or her party affiliation. Palladino says that she is committed to demonstrating against busing through legal means; that she would urge the anti-busing movement to demonstrate non-violently.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 06/14/1976