Description: Press conference after Suffolk County Courthouse bombing; decision to close building for safety. Talk of increased security at entrances. Also, press conference with Michael Dukakis, Frank Bellotti, Kevin White, Tom McGee, and Kevin Harrington pledging to commit all necessary resources to investigate and prosecute violent crime.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 04/22/1976
Description: Sound dropout in the beginning of the video. Boston City Council meeting on the Boston School budget. City Councilor reads communications from Mayor White to the City Council. Boston schools superintendent Marion Fahey testifies to City Council about school budget deficit. Accompanying Fahey are Paul Kennedy, Associate Superintendant in charge of personnel and John McGran, member of the superintendent's office on budgetary matters. Councilors Louise Day Hicks, Albert "Dapper" O'Neil, Larry DiCara are among those on the panel questioning Fahey. Mayor White and Superintendent Fahey both address the effect of Judge Arthur Garrity's 1975 court order on the Boston School Department budget. Video goes black in the middle for a few second, but audio continues.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 05/20/1976
Description: Mayor Kevin White honors seven distinguished Bostonians at a gala reception at the Parkman House. Women's rights advocate Florence Luscombe, community activist Melnea Cass, former senator and governor Leverett Saltonstall, former senator and ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, theater critic Elliot Norton, historian Walter Muir Whitehill, entrepreneur Sidney Rabb (of Stop & Shop). Personal narratives of the honorees with archival stills of their lives.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 08/06/1977
Description: Dedication ceremony of John Hancock glass tower, in lobby. General James M. Gavin is introduced and addresses the audience. Gavin and other speakers talk about the history of the building project. Thomas O'Neill and Kevin White are also on stage. Unveiling of massive reproduction of Declaration of Independence on wall of lobby. English High School chorus sings patriotic songs. Hundreds of guests crowded in lobby.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/15/1976
Description: Press conference at City Hall. Boston Mayor Kevin White and Police Commissioner Robert DiGrazia read prepared statements about the following day's school opening in the third year of court-ordered busing. White expresses confidence in a peaceful opening of schools. DiGrazia says that police have been instructed to use minimum force, but to act decisively against any disruptions of public order. Both men hope that police can be removed from schools as soon as possible. White notes that the atmosphere seems calmer this year than during the previous two years. White says that he would like to remove police from the schools as soon as possible because their presence hinders the development of a healthy learning environment. Reporters question them on the school opening. Shots of Pam Bullard listening to the press conference.
2:09:33: Visual: Members of the press are assembled for a press conference at City Hall with Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston) and Robert DiGrazia (Police Commissioner, City of Boston). White begins reading a statement, then stops because there is a problem with sound. 2:11:53: V: White reads a prepared statement. He says that school opens tomorrow; that fewer students face assignments to new schools this year; that more students are attending the schools of their choice; that many schools are benefitting from programs linked with universities and businesses; that three new schools are opening; that he is confident that the school year will be productive. White says that the city is prepared to guarantee the safety of all schoolchildren; that he hopes to reduce the police presence at the schools this year; that police will restore order if disruptions occur. White urges citizens to share in the responsibility for a peaceful school opening; that the city will focus on improving schools this year. 2:14:32: V: DiGrazia reads a prepared statement. He expresses confidence in a peaceful school opening. He reports that police have received instructions to allow peaceful demonstrations, but to maintain public order; that police officers have been instructed to use minimum force and to treat those arrested with respect and courtesy. DiGrazia says that police will not tolerate any acts of violence or disruption; that these acts are often committed by only a few citizens. 2:15:56: V: White invites questions from the reporters. A reporter asks DiGrazia what kind of preparations have been made for additional police support. DiGrazia says that Massachusetts State Police will be assigned to South Boston; that MDC Police will be assigned to Charlestown; that US Marshals will be present for the opening of schools. DiGrazia says that the atmosphere on the streets seems calm; that a few citizens are engaging in disruptive behavior; that the atmosphere seems calmer than in the previous two years; that police presence will be less visible than last year; that additional police will stand by for support. DiGrazia says that the police have not received any indication that there will be outside agitators at the schools. DiGrazia says that he hopes there will be little overtime for police officers this year. DiGrazia says that uniformed State Police officers will be assigned to South Boston High School; that community service officers and juvenile officers will be assigned to monitor the other schools. 2:18:52: V: A reporter asks about cooperative efforts between the School Department, the city of Boston, and the Police Department. White says that the three entities have been working together on school desegregaton for three years; that differences about the school budget have not affected efforts to achieve a successful school opening. DiGrazia says that police will continue to enforce ordinances forbidding the assembly of more than three people along a bus route, or assemblies within 100 yards of schools. Shot of Pam Bullard. White says that he would like to remove police from schools as soon as possible; that police presence hinders a healthy learning atmospheres; that police can be removed if citizens refrain from disrupting the schools. A reporter asks DiGrazia to clarify the term "minimum force" in police conduct. DiGrazia says that he hopes police can dissuade citizens from engaging in disruptive behavior; that he would like to see the police removed from the schools as soon as possible. DiGrazia refuses to elaborate on minimum tolerance policy guidelines, but says that warnings will be given to disruptors before action is taken. DiGrazia says that the school department instituted the use of metal detectors at the schools; that they will be used again this year. DiGrazia refuses to give out information on the number of police officers assigned to the schools
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 09/07/1976
Description: Stanley Forman's Herald American photographs of Theodore Landsmark being attacked on City Hall plaza by Joseph Rakes and teenage boys from South Boston. Sen. Bill Owens addresses crowd, withdrawing vote of confidence for Kevin White's ability to ease Boston's racial tension and saying that Boston is not a safe city for people of color. Report of the reactions of Robert DiGrazia (police commissioner), Mayor Kevin White, and James Kelly (head of Home and School Association of South Boston).
1:00:17: Steve Nevas reads the news the set of The Ten O'Clock News. Behind Nevas is a photo of Ted Landsmark, after he was attacked at City Hall Plaza. Nevas reports that Boston police have identified four of the men who attacked Landsmark; that one of the youths from South Boston has been arrested for assault and battery; that police have issued a warrant for Joseph Rakes and two others involved in the attack yesterday. Nevas reports that the Massachusetts House of Representatives has passed a resolution condemning the attack; that Governor Michael Dukakis has issued a similar statement. 1:00:57: Pam Bullard reports that a group of white youths attacked Theodore Landsmark (attorney) as he passed through City Hall Plaza on his way to a meeting at City Hall yesterday. Bullard reports that the youths were at City Hall Plaza to protest busing with a group of 250 South Boston and Charlestown students. Visual: Still photographs of the attack on Landsmark at City Hall Plaza by Stanley Forman of the Boston Herald American. Bullard reports that the students involved in the protest were demanding an end to school desegregation; that several people were harassed by the youths at City Hall Plaza; that Landsmark suffered a broken nose and facial lacerations. Bullard reports that the African American community gathered today at City Hall Plaza; that African American leaders condemned police for failing to respond effectively to the attack; that leaders condemned the city's leadership for encouraging the growing violence. V: Footage of a crowd of African Americans and whites gathered at City Hall Plaza. State Senator William Owens addresses the crowd, saying that people of color are not safe in Boston; that people of color from other parts of the nation should stay away from Boston; that people of color must unite against the climate of racism in the city; that people of color in Boston should ask for federal protection because the city has failed to protect them. Bullard reports that African American leaders have accused Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston) of encouraging violence by tolerating disruptions in the schools; that African American leaders have condemned the use of City Hall for anti-busing rallies. V: Footage of Owens saying that he is withdrawing his support of White. Bullard reports that African American leaders appear united in the belief that White and Robert DiGrazia (Police Commissioner, City of Boston) have broke their promises to the African American community. V: Footage of White on September 3, 1975, saying that no breach of public safety will be tolerated by the city. Footage of DiGrazia on February 16, 1976, saying that violent behavior will not be tolerated; that those participating in violent behavior will be arrested and prosecuted. Bullard reports that White and DiGrazia say that they have not broken any promises; that DiGrazia is confident that Landsmark's attackers will be apprehended; that White had no comment on calls for his resignation by the African American community. Bullard reports that James Kelly (South Boston Home and School Association) blamed the violence on the liberal press. Bullard comments that the racial tension in Boston is worse than it has been in several months; that little effort is being made to ease the tension in the city.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 04/06/1976
Description: Theodore Landsmark (attorney) speaks to the media at a press conference. His face is in bandages. Landsmark gives an account of the attack he sustained on City Hall Plaza, perpetrated by white teenagers attending an anti-busing rally. He commends the actions of Clarence Jones (Deputy Mayor, City of Boston), who came to his aid after the attack. Landsmark talks about the media's coverage of his attack. Landsmark says that he will seek full prosecution of his attackers, and adds that he will bring suit against members of the Boston School Committee and the Boston City Council. He condemns white city leaders who "incite and encourage" racist violence. Landsmark calls for an end to racism and race discrimination in the city. He accuses the white power structure of ignoring the problems of minority citizens.
1:00:04: Visual: A group of African American men greet each other at the entrance of the room where Theodore Landsmark (attorney) will hold a press conference. Landsmark enters the room. His nose and face are bandaged with white tape. An African American woman hands him a note as he enters. Landsmark sits down behind a table with microphones. An African American man sits beside him. A group of African American men and women, and a few white people, stand behind him as he speaks. Reporters sit at the other side of the table and stand around the room. The reporters take notes as Landsmark speaks. 1:02:00: V: Landsmark notes that there has been conflict among the media over coverage of the press conference; that he wants both union and non-union members of the media to cover the press conference; that the media needs to work out the union issues outside of the press conference. Landsmark greets the media and reads a statement. He says that the press conference will be brief because he needs to get some rest; that he lost a lot of blood in the attack. Landsmark says that he is concerned that the publicity generated by the attack may distort some of the crucial issues which need to be discussed. Landsmark runs through the sequence of events on the day of the attack. Landsmark says that he was on his way to an affirmative action committee meeting with the Boston Redevelopment Authority; that he was beaten and kicked by a crowd of young people coming from an anti-busing rally at City Hall. Landsmark refutes rumors that Clarence Jones (Deputy Mayor, City of Boston) had been with him and ran away from the scene. Landsmark says that he regrets the circulation of the false reports regarding Jones; that Jones was the only person who left City Hall to aid him after the attack. Landsmark says that he will seek full prosecution of the youth involved in the attack; that he will take action in civil and criminal court against members of the Boston City Council and the Boston School Committee; that he would like to see an end to the use of City Hall as "a sanctuary for racism and a resource center for those who would incite and encourage racist violence." Landsmark says that some city officials perpetuate discrimination against people of color in Boston on a daily basis. Landsmark expresses gratitude to members of the African American and white communities for the many acts of kindness and courage shown to him after the attack. Landsmark adds that meaningful gestures by the white community before the attack could have prevented the violence. Landsmark says that he is grateful for the support of the Black Caucus, the Board of Directors of the Contractors Association of Boston, and the Massachusetts Black Lawyers Association. Landsmark thanks the newspaper and TV cameramen for capturing the attack on film. He says that he wishes that somebody had come to his aid, but is grateful for the record of the attack provided by the journalists. Landsmark says that without the photos, the attack would have been recorded "as just another scuffle on the street." Landsmark says that racism is to blame for the attack; that racism in the city of Boston has been fueled by selfish politicians; that politicians continue to ignore the social and economic problems of the city. Landsmark says that he will work to solve these problems in the African American community; that solving these problems will benefit all citizens. Landsmark says that the attack lays bare the problems of the city; that the problems go beyond issues of safety in the street or busing. Landsmark notes that the attack has been called "an isolated incident" by J. Stanley Pottinger (Assistant US Attorney General). Landsmark says that he does not agree; that people of color must be allowed to participate on an equal basis in all areas and levels of business and city government. Landsmark says that the issue of racism must not be subordinated; that the white power structure is indifferent to people of color in the city; that businesses and government must work together to improve the economic situation of people of color in Boston. 1:15:29: V: Reporters ask Landsmark questions after his statement. A reporter asks him to specify city officials against whom he will bring suit. Landsmark says that he will not name the officials because he does not want to jeopardize any of the lawsuits. A reporter asks him if he will bring suit against Louise Day Hicks (Boston City Council). Landsmark says that he will not comment except that his attackers were violating truancy laws; that his attackers were marching on City Hall Plaza without a parade permit. Landsmark notes that Hicks invited the protestors into her office to escape from the cold; that police officers were on duty near City Hall Plaza, but did not arrive on the scene until after the attack. Landsmark says that he cannot comment on how the police department should have deployed its personnel to control the unlicensed protest on City Hall Plaza by the students. A reporter asks Landsmark if he agrees with the Black Caucus' decision to call for the resignation of Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston). Landsmark says that the Black Caucus is looking for better leadership from White on issues of affirmative action, busing, and unemployment. Landsmark says that he has received calls from around the country; that many are appalled by the incident on City Hall Plaza; that the city can take action to prevent more violent incidents.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 04/07/1976
Description: Judy Stoia interviews James Kelly (South Boston Information Center) about resistance to busing and his decision not to attend the Procession Against Violence. Kelly says that he has appealed to African American parents to put pressure on the NAACP to stop busing. Kelly says that many African American parents agree that "forced busing is the problem." Following interview is silent footage of helicopter and security detail among rooftops of City Hall Plaza. A WGBH camera crew overlooks City Hall Plaza and records the Procession Against Violence. Thomas O'Neill, Jr. (Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts), Kitty Dukakis, Michael Dukakis (Governor of Massachusetts), Kathryn White, Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston), Charles Barry (State Secretary of Public Safety), Dr. Charles Glenn (Massachusetts State Department of Education), Ann Landers (advice columnist), Joseph Kennedy, Edward Kennedy (US Senator), and Edward Brooke (US Senator) are among those at the front of the procession. Footage includes overhead shots of the crowd and audio of hecklers jeering at White and Kennedy. Reverend Robert Golledge and John Colburn address the crowd. Tape 1 of 3.
1:00:15: Visual: Judy Stoia sets up an interview with James Kelly (South Boston Information Center) near City Hall Plaza. Stoia asks Kelly about a message he delivered to African American parents. Kelly says that he urged African American parents to use their influence with the NAACP to stop forced busing; that both white and African Americans know that "forced busing is the problem"; that African American parents have encouraged the South Boston Information Center to continue the fight against busing. Kelly says that he made the plea to African American parents in order to help restore sanity to the city. Kelly says that he will not participate in today's Procession Against Violence because it will do nothing to remedy forced busing; that the mayor, state officials and "the liberals" need to take a stand against forced busing. Stoia probes Kelly's motives in boycotting the march. Kelly says that his statement to African American parents will be more effective than a march around the city by "the liberal establishment." Kelly says that white parents want a good education for their children in neighborhood schools; that the "liberal establishment" and the media need to realize that "good education for all kids" is more important than "quality integrated education." Kelly says that he hopes white parents and African American parents can work together to solve some of the problems in the city. Stoia thanks Kelly. The crew takes some cutaway shots of Stoia asking questions. 1:05:09: V: A small crowd begins to gather for the procession against violence at City Hall Plaza. A few people look down on the plaza from rooftops. Helicopters circle above City Hall Plaza. A crowd mills about on the plaza. A small crowd is gathered around some seating. A marching band plays. 1:07:44: V: Groups of people walk toward City Hall Plaza. Police officers are visible. One officer directs traffic. The music of a marching band is audible, then it stops. Marchers begin to fill the street, moving toward the plaza. Four men in uniform lead the march, carrying an American flag and a Massachusetts state flag. A crowd of people stream into the plaza. A woman yells, "Kevin, stop forced busing." A man yells, "Hey, you hypocrite." Thomas O'Neill (Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts), Michael Dukakis (Governor of Massachusetts), Kitty Dukakis, Kathryn White, Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston), Charles Barry (State Secretary of Public Safety), Dr. Charles Glenn (Massachusetts State Department of Education) and Ann Landers (advice columnist) are among those visible at the front of the marchers. Some of the crowd jeers. A man yells, "Kennedy, you faker." The officials at the front of the march greet Elma Lewis and others informally as they proceed to the front of the plaza. A woman yells, "Stop forced busing. A large crowd continues to stream into the plaza. Shots of the assembled crowd. The WGBH crew tries to locate and identify public figures. A helicopter circles overhead. 1:15:25: V: A marching band begins to play. The stream of marchers continues into the plaza. Shots of assembled crowd. A woman yells, "Stop forced busing. A voice is heard addressing the crowd, calling for "a peaceful community in Boston." Shot of the crowd. O'Neill, Joseph Kennedy, Edward Kennedy (US Senator) and Edward Brooke (US Senator) are visible. Audio is difficult to hear. Reverend Robert Golledge (Vicar, Old North Church) addresses the crowd from the podium. Golledge introduces the band from the St. William's School in Dorchester. Assembled in front of the podium, the band strikes up the national anthem. Shots of the media photographing the event; of the crowd filling the plaza; of officials at the front of the crowd. John Colburn (Episcopal Archdiocese) leads the crowd in prayer.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 04/23/1976
Description: Participants in the Procession Against Violence are assembled on City Hall Plaza. WGBH camera crew records the gathering from a rooftop above City Hall Plaza. Thomas O'Neill, Jr. (Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts), Edward Kennedy (US Senator), Joseph Kennedy, Edward Brooke (US Senator) Michael Dukakis (Governor of Massachusetts), Kitty Dukakis, Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston), Kathryn White and Ann Landers (advice columnist) are visible in the front of the crowd. Robert Golledge (Vicar, Old North Church) introduces the speakers. Humberto Cardinal Medeiros (Archdiocese of Boston) and Michael Haynes (Twelfth Street Baptist Church) lead the crowd in prayer. John Colburn (Episcopal Archdiocese), Roland Gittelsohn (Temple Israel), Michael Germinal Rivas (Chaplain, Boston University), and John Zanetos (Greek Orthodox Cathedral) are heard addressing the crowd. Paula Lyons (aide to Mayor Kevin White) leads the crowd in singing "God Bless America." Crowd breaks up and departs among marching band accompaniment. Tape 2 of 3
0:58:14: Visual: A crowd is assembled at City Hall Plaza for the Procession Against Violence. John Colburn (Episcopal Archdiocese) leads a prayer. Shot of the crowd. Thomas O'Neill (Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts), Edward Kennedy (US Senator), Edward Brooke (US Senator), Michael Dukakis (Governor of Massachusetts) and Kitty Dukakis are visible. Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston), Kathryn White, and Ann Landers (advice columnist) are visible. Reverend Robert Golledge (Vicar, Old North Church) introduces Rabbi Roland Gittelsohn (Temple Israel). Gittelsohn addresses the crowd and condemns violence. Shots of crowds at City Hall Plaza. Marchers continue to stream into the plaza. 1:00:54: V: Michael Haynes (Twelfth Street Baptist Church) leads the crowd in prayer for peace. Overhead shot of massive crowd filling the plaza; of O'Neill, Joseph Kennedy, Edward Kennedy, Brooke, Michael Dukakis and Kitty Dukakis. 1:03:06: V: Golledge leads the crowd in the "Our Father." Shots of crowd; of Kennedy and Brooke. Golledge introduces Humberto Cardinal Medeiros (Archdiocese of Boston), who leads the crowd in prayer. The crowd applauds for Medeiros. Golledge introduces Reverend Michael Germinal Rivas (chaplain, Boston University). Rivas leads a prayer. Shots of the crowd. 1:06:32: V: Reverend John Zanetos (Greek Orthodox Cathedral) addresses the crowd. Shots of crowd; of Kevin White and Kathryn White. Golledge introduces Paula Lyons (aide to Mayor Kevin White). Lyons leads the crowd in singing"God Bless America". Shots of O'Neill, Joseph Kennedy, Edward Kennedy, and Brooke; of crowd in the plaza. Crowd slowly breaks up. Edward Kennedy and Joseph Kennedy make their way out with the crowd. Michael Dukakis and Edward Kennedy shake hands with White. Edward Brooke makes his way out of the plaza. The crowd breaks up and leaves the plaza. The marching band plays.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 04/23/1976
Description: Participants in the Procession Against Violence are assembled at City Hall Plaza. A WGBH camera crew records the event from the back of the crowd. Edward Brooke (US Senator), Michael Dukakis (Governor of Massachusetts), Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston), and Kathryn White are visible at the front of a large crowd gathered on City Hall Plaza. Robert Golledge (Vicar, Old North Church) introduces the speakers and is heard leading the crowd in the Lord's Prayer. Michael Haynes (Twelfth Street Baptist Church) and Humberto Cardinal Medeiros (Archdiocese of Boston) lead the crowd in prayers. Michael Germinal Rivas (Chaplain, Boston University) and John Zanetos (Greek Orthodox Cathedral) are heard addressing the crowd. Paula Lyons (aide to Mayor Kevin White) leads the crowd in singing "God Bless America." The crowd breaks up and departs. Judy Stoia and Pam Bullard ask white, Asian American and African American attendees why they attended the Procession Against Violence. Interviewees speak out against violence and talk about the importance of the march. Tape 3 of 3.
0:58:46: Visual: Paricipants in the Procession Against Violence are gathered at City Hall Plaza. A WGBH crew is on the ground with the crowd. Audio of the police leading a man away from the crowd. The media and the members of the St. William's School band mix with the crowd. Shots of crowd members. 0:59:49: V: Michael Haynes (Twelfth Street Baptist Church) addresses the crowd from the podium. Shots of Haynes at podium; of assembled speakers behind him. Haynes leads the crowd in a prayer for peace. Shot of Edward Brooke (US Senator) from behind. The Reverend Robert Golledge (Vicar, Old North Church) leads the crowd in the Lord's Prayer. Shots of Kevin White (Mayor, City of Boston) and Kathryn White reciting the Lord's Prayer; of Michael Dukakis (Governor of Massachusetts) from behind; of Brooke. Golledge introduces Humberto Cardinal Medieros (Archdiocese of Boston), who leads the crowd in prayer. Shots of Medeiros at podium; of speakers assembled behind Medeiros; of marching band in front of podium; of crowd. Sirens wail during Medeiros' prayer. A fire truck is visible, passing by the plaza. Golledge announces Reverend Germinal Rivas (Chaplain, Boston University). Rivas leads the crowd in prayer. Shots of crowd; of police strolling through crowd; of media documenting the procession; of Kevin White and Kathryn White listening to Rivas. 1:08:21: V: John Zanetos (Greek Orthodox Cathedral) addresses the crowd. Traveling shot through assembled crowd. Shots of crowd at far edge of plaza, listening to the prayer. Golledge announces that Paula Lyons (aide to Mayor Kevin White) will lead the crowd in singing "God Bless America." Shots of crowd singing "God Bless America." The crowd applauds. The crowd breaks up and begins to leave the plaza. Shots of people leaving the plaza. Stoia is heard interviewing a man about why he marched. The man says he is concerned about the violence and he thinks it is important to support non-violent action. 1:13:41: V: The crowd breaks up. Pam Bullard interviews members of the crowd. An Asian American woman says that she is a student at the University of Massachusetts; that she is concerned about violence and felt it was important to support the march. A white male student says he is glad that a lot of people came out for the march; that he thinks it is important for the people of Boston to show that they do not support violence. A female student says that she came because she opposes violence; that the march was important. An older white male from Cambridge says that he came out to support peace. Bullard asks a young boy why he came to the march. He says that he came because his mother said so. A young African American man says that the march is "a black and white thing." A young white man says that he feels badly about the violence; that he hopes to help find a solution. Another young white man says that the march promotes unity; that he is glad that there was a good turnout. An African American woman says that she hopes the march helps to stop the violence; that she wants her nieces to be able to go to school safely; that she does not think the march will help the situation. Bullard interviews an African American family about the march. The mother says that she does not support violence. The father says that a lot of people attended the march; that it should help the situation; that he marched in order to express his objection to violence. One of their sons says that he marched because his parents did. 1:18:25: V: Bullard asks an older white man why he participated in the march. The man says that the city must be saved; that it is important for residents to show solidarity with one another; that the march will not solve the problem, but it can help. An older woman says that the violence in the city is getting worse; that the march was important because it brought citizens, city officials, and the clergy together; that the judicial system must be improved; that the courts must punish perpetrators of violence.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 04/23/1976