Description: Christopher Lydon interviews Sarah Small, who runs the Protestant Ministry at the University of Massachusetts Boston campus. Lydon and Small pray together before the interview. Small talks about her admiration for Martin Luther King, Jr. and her involvement in the civil rights movement. She says that she learned a lot about herself after spending time in jail for participation in the civil rights movement. Small talks about her commitment to helping those in need. She comments on the status of African Americans in US society. This edition of the Ten O'Clock News also included the following items: Banks agree to improve access to banking services in low-income neighborhoods and Julian Bond at Harvard University
1:00:10: Visual: Footage of Sarah Small (United Campus Ministries) being interviewed by Christopher Lydon at Packard Manse in Roxbury. Lydon reports that Small runs the Protestant Ministry at the University of Massachusetts Boston campus. Lydon says that Small grew up in rural North Carolina; that Small is a devout Christian. Lydon reports that their interview began with a prayer. V: Footage of Small and Lydon praying together as they hold hands. Footage of Small saying that she has always had great faith in God. Small says that she has always seen great leaders as humans. Small tells a story about how she refused to stand up for Lyndon Johnson (former US President), saying that she only stands up for Jesus. Small talks about how much she loved and admired Martin Luther King, Jr. (civil rights leader). Small says that King was a leader who was led by the holy spirit. Small says that King knew he had a limited time to accomplish his goals. Lydon reports that Small found her political and spiritual direction when she was in jail in the 1960s. V: Footage of Smalls being interviewed by Lydon. Small says that she ended up in jail a lot; that jail became a restful haven for her. Small says that she is thankful for having gone to jail. Small says that she overcame many fears through going to jail and through her participation in the civil rights movement. Small says that she realized that she is free to do what she wants and to not do what she does not want. Lydon reports that Small often played music for the crowds before King's speeches. Lydon notes that Small's front door at the Packard Manse is always open. V: Shots of Small playing the piano and singing; of three children clapping along with the music. Footage of Small talking about helping the less fortunate. Small says that she feeds and shelters those in need. Small says that she is not afraid to keep her door open, despite the violence on the streets. Small says that she does not own anything that she would not give away to someone else. Lydon reports that Small believes that people need to realize the complexity of real equality. V: Footage of Small being interviewed by Lydon. Small says that African American children learn things twice. Small says that African American culture is different from white culture; that African American children need to learn both cultures. Small says that African American children are not given credit for learning both cultures. Small says that one group of people should not be able to determine cultural standards. Small compares American culture to a vegetable soup. Small says that African Americans are the untapped resource of the US.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 01/15/1990
Description: Meg Vaillancourt talks to students at the Martin Luther King Middle School in Dorchester about their opinions of Nelson Mandela (black South African leader). The students tell what they know of Mandela's life and struggle. Two students compare Mandela to American civil rights leaders Martin Luther King, Jr. and to Malcolm X. Some students talk about whether violence should be used to further one's goals. The students agree on the importance of fighting for equality. They are united in their admiration for Mandela. Vaillancourt's report is accompanied by footage of Nelson Mandela and Winnie Mandela (wife of Nelson Mandela) greeting crowds in South Africa.
1:00:04: Visual: Footage of Meg Vaillancourt (WGBH reporter) talking to students in the library of the Martin Luther King School in Dorchester. Vaillancourt asks how many students have heard of Nelson Mandela (black South African leader). All of the students raise their hands. Vaillancourt reports that Mandela had already been jailed for fifteen years when these students were born. V: Black and white shot of Mandela as a young man. Vaillancourt notes that the middle-school students knew a lot about Mandela. V: Footage of an African American male student saying that Mandela fought against apartheid in South Africa. Footage of another African American male student saying that Mandela is the leader of "the black congress" in South Africa; that he was accused of participating in the bombing of a government building in South Africa. Footage of Nelson Mandela and Winnie Mandela (wife of Nelson Mandela) exiting an airplane onto a runway in Johannesburg. Nelson Mandela and Winnie Mandela wave at supporters. Vaillancourt reports that Mandela has been in the news since his release from prison. Vaillancourt notes that the students had heard of Mandela from their parents and friends; that the students recognized Mandela in thirty-year-old photos. V: Shot of Vaillancourt in the library with the students. Black and white shot of Mandela as a young man. Footage of an African American male student saying that Mandela reminds him of Martin Luther King (American civil rights leader). Footage of another African American male student saying that Mandela reminds him of Malcolm X (American civil rights leader). Footage of another African American male student says that black people need to fight for equality; that black people should use violence if non-violence does not work. Footage of an African American female student saying that violence should be avoided if possible. Footage of an Asian American female student saying that segregation in the US is like apartheid in South Africa. The student says that the people united to end segregation in the US. Footage of an African American male student saying that there are other ways to achieve goals besides violence. Footage of an African American male student saying that he would like to teach the South African goverment to trust black South Africans. Shots of the middle-school students sitting with Vaillancourt in the library. Vaillancourt reports that she spoke to students ranging in age from eleven to fifteen. Vaillancourt notes that the students believe that Americans can learn from Mandela's struggle. V: Footage of an Asian American female student saying that people need to fight for their rights sometimes; that there is a price to be paid. Footage of an African American male student saying that forgiveness is important; of another African American male student saying that Mandela showed patience and endurance during his struggle. Shot of Nelson Mandela raising his fist and smiling for the media.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 02/13/1990
Description: Meg Vaillancourt reports that Jesse Jackson visited Harvard Law School to join student protests over the school's minority hiring practices. Vaillancourt notes that Jackson supports Derrick Bell (Professor, Harvard Law School), who has announced that he will leave his post to protest the school's poor affirmative action record. Derrick Bell is Harvard's first African-American tenured professor. Vaillancourt reports that there are only five tenured female professors and three tenured African American male professors out of sixty-one tenured professors at the school. Vaillancourt's report includes footage of Jackson addressing students at the school. Barack Obama is seen among students in the background. Jackson shakes hands with Bell and condemns the school's affirmative action record. Vaillancourt notes that the school administration has refused Jackson's offer to act as a mediator on the issue. Vaillancourt reports that Jackson accused Harvard Law School of institutional racism and sexism. She adds that Robert Clark (Dean, Harvard Law School) issued a statement defending the school's hiring practices. Vaillancourt's report features footage of Bell at a student demonstration at Harvard Law School in April 1990 and footage of Jackson at a student demonstration. This tape includes additional footage of Jackson addressing demonstrators at Harvard Law School.
1:00:05: Visual: Footage of Jesse Jackson (African American political leader) speaking at Harvard Law School. Jackson says that affirmative action is a response to years of denial by law. Shots of the audience listening to Jackson in a lecture hall at the school. Meg Vaillancourt reports that Jackson's visit to Harvard Law School attracted national attention to the controversy over the school's minority hiring practices. V: Footage of Jackson addressing the audience. Jackson says that it is an error and an insult to say that there is no African American woman qualified to be a tenured professor at Harvard Law School. Shots of the audience. Vaillancourt reports that Jackson visited the school to support Derrick Bell (Professor, Harvard Law School). Vaillancourt notes that Bell was the first African American to be granted tenure at Harvard Law School. Vaillancourt reports that Bell has announced that he will leave his post to protest the school's poor affirmative action record. V: Shot of Jackson and Bell shaking hands in the conference hall. Footage from April 24, 1990 of Bell at a demonstration on the campus of Harvard Law School. Bell addresses student demonstrators. Bell says that he he has urged students to take risks to further their beliefs; that he must now do the same. Shot of demonstrators holding a sign reading, "Where are our tenured black women professors?" Vaillancourt reports that Bell will take a leave of absence until the school adds a woman of color to the faculty. Vaillancourt notes that there are 61 tenured professors at the school; that three of those professors are African American; that the African American professors are all male. Vaillancourt reports that half of the students at Harvard Law School are women; that there are only five tenured female professors; that there are no Latino or Asian law professors at the school. V: Shots of Bell and Jackson entering the lecture hall; of students standing and applauding for Bell and Jackson. Shots of white and African American female students in the audience. Shot of Jackson, Bell and a white woman raising linked arms at the front of the lecture hall. The students applaud. Vaillancourt reports that the school seems ready to accept Bell's departure; that Robert Clark (Dean of Harvard Law School) declined to speak on camera about the school's hiring practices. Vaillancourt reports that Clark issued a statement in which he defended the slow pace of change at Harvard Law School. Vaillancourt reports that Jackson has accused Harvard of institutional racism and sexism. V: Shot of students demonstrators on the Harvard Law School campus on April 24, 1990. Footage of Jackson addressing student demonstrators outside on the campus of Harvard Law School. Student supporters stand behind him. Jackson says that Harvard should negotiate with Bell and the student demonstrators. The demonstrators applaud Jackson. Vaillancourt stands outside of a building on the Harvard Law School campus. Vaillancourt reports that Jackson met briefly with Clark today; that the school has refused Jackson's offer to act as a mediator on the issue of faculty diversity. Vaillancourt reports that Jackson called for a reexamination of race relations in the US during his speech at Harvard Law School. V: Footage of Jackson addressing an audience in a lecture hall at Harvard Law School. Jackson says that most people in the world are not white nor are they males. Jackson says that these people cannot wait for some archaic standard to allow them to be appraised as worthy by white males. Shots of students in the audience. Shot of Jackson entering a room. Jackson shakes hands and embraces Bell. Jackson shakes hands with other Harvard Law School professors and officials. Vaillancourt reports that Jackson has called for a new Kerner Commission; that the Kerner Commission issued a study twenty years ago which concluded that white America and black America were separate and unequal. Vaillancourt reports that Jackson praised Bell for his courage; that Jackson called on Harvard Law School faculty to support Bell. V: Footage of Jackson addressing an audience in the lecture hall. Jackson talks about the sacrifices made by Rosa Parks (civil rights activist) and Martin Luther King (civil rights leader). Jackson says that Bell is taking a principled stand; that Bell is drawing attention to the problem of racism and sexism at Harvard. Shots of Bell at a demonstration on the Harvard Law School campus on April 24, 1990. Shots of Bell addressing a demonstration outside of a building on the Harvard Law School campus today. Jackson stands beside Bell. Student demonstrators stand behind them. The demonstrators raise their linked arms. A demonstrator holds a sign reading, "diversity now." Vaillancourt reports that faculty were scheduled to vote today on a resolution encouraging diversity. Vaillancourt notes that Harvard officials say that a personal matter forced the dean to end the meeting before the resolution came to a vote. Vaillancourt notes that the vote was not rescheduled.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 05/09/1990
Description: Ten O'Clock News special in celebration of South African leader Nelson Mandela to Boston. Carmen Fields, Christopher Lydon, Lovell Dyett and Elliot Francis host the show in the WGBH studios. Marcus Jones reports on preparations in the city of Boston for Nelson Mandela's visit. Jones' report includes footage of preparations on the Esplanande and footage of schoolchildren at the Trotter Elementary School rehearsing a musical piece and making posters. Jones interviews Jacob Abdul Khllaq (general manager, A Nubian Notion) about the Nelson Mandela books, T-shirts, and posters sold around the city. Carmen Fields interviews South African exiles Themba Vilakazi and Janet Levine about the life and leadership of Nelson Mandela. Fields's report includes photos and footage of Nelson Mandela and Winnie Mandela. Christopher Lydon interviews in-studio guests Aggrey Mbere (Roxbury Community College) and Orlando Patterson (Harvard University) about Nelson Mandela. Patterson and Mbere talk about how Mandela's culture and education have shaped his leadership. Lovell Dyett reports on the debate surrounding divestment and the imposition of sanctions on the South African government. He notes that the Massachusetts State Legislature passed meaningful divestment legislation in 1983. Dyett interviews Caroline Hunter (Polaroid Corporation), Mel King (Community Fellows Program, MIT) and Robert Zevin (Manager, Calvert Social Investment Fund) about divestment. Dyett reports that Harvard University and the Gillette Corporation have refused to divest completely. Dyett interviews in-studio guests Dr. Willard Johnson (MIT) and Joseph LaBonte (Founder, American Business Initiative for a Free South Africa) about the debate over sanctions. David Boeri reports on Teko Manong (South African exile in Boston). Boeri interviews Manong about his opposition to apartheid and his exile in the United States. Boeri notes that Manong is a playwright, but has received little recognition in the United States. Meg Vaillancourt reports on Nthabiseng Mabuza (South African exile). Vaillancourt notes that Mabuza was paralyzed from injuries sustained during an attack on her home by South African security forces. Vaillancourt reports that the Fund for a Free South Africa helped Mabuza and her family settle in Cambridge. Mabuza discusses apartheid and her impressions of Nelson Mandela. Elliot Francis reports that Andrew Jones (filmmaker) has just returned from South Africa, where he shot a documentary series. Jones talks about the apartheid regime in South Africa as well as race relations in the United States. Francis's report includes footage from Jones's documentary. Francis reports that US citizens and local residents support Nelson Mandela's struggle for freedom. Francis interviews Edmund Barry Gaither (Museum of the National Center of Afro-American Artists). Gaither discusses the initiative by the National Conference of Artists to create artwork inspired by Soweto and apartheid. Francis' report includes shots of artwork by artists Kenneth Falana and Nelson Stevens. Francis interviews Sadiki Kambon (Project FATE.) about Nelson Mandela and the significance of his struggle. Christopher Lydon and Lovell Dyett interview in-studio guests Margaret Burnham (Fund for a Free South Africa) and Henry Hampton (Executive Producer, "Eyes on the Prize" ). Burnham and Hampton discuss what effect Mandela's visit will have on racial issues in the US. The special includes footage of Mandela speaking at the United Nations and footage of Mandela in South Africa after his release from prison. The special also includes footage of Boston residents and school children talking about Mandela. Producer - Juanita Anderson; Produced by Lenore J. Hanoka, Calvin Lindsay Jr. and Kathleen McKenna.
1:00:01: WGBH promotion. 1:00:09: WGBH logo. Visual: Shot of Zinzi Mandela (daughter of Nelson Mandela) addressing a crowd. Zinzi Mandela says that her father will return. Shot of Nelson Mandela (ANC leader) waving to a crowd as he prepares to exit a plane. Shot of an audience cheering. Shot of black South Africans dancing in the street as they celebrate Mandela's release. Shot of a well-dressed crowd celebrating. Shot of a parade celebrating Mandela's release. Shot of Bishop Desmond Tutu (black South African leader). Shot of Nelson Mandela speaking to the United Nations in New York. A logo for the show "Mandela in Boston" shows on-screen. 1:00:55: Christopher Lydon, Elliot Francis, Carmen Fields, and Lovell Dyett sit in the WGBH studios. Lydon says that Mandela is coming to Boston to greet key allies in the struggle against apartheid and the struggle for American sanctions; that Mandela is coming to Boston to raise money for the African National Congress (ANC). Dyett says that Mandela has been released from prison; that Mandela is still not free; that the South African people must still struggle to achieve democracy in their country. Fields reports that the she and her colleagues will examine Mandela, his message, and his connections to Boston. Fields reports that Mandela has become a larger-than-life figure. Fields notes that Mandela said that his reception in New York City was beyond his expectations. Fields reports that many UN delegates were on their feet to cheer for Mandela as he approached the podium at the UN. V: Shots of Mandela at the UN. Fields reports that Mandela repeated his call for sanctions against South Africa; that Mandela extended his greetings to the people of Palestine. Fields notes that Mandela said that the Palestinians are fighting for liberation and human rights. Francis says that Mandela is a phenomenon. Francis introduces a report by Marcus Jones. 1:02:46: V: Footage of Ray Flynn (Mayor of Boston) and a group of city officials unfurling a flag of the African National Congress (ANC). The group of city officials with Flynn include Boston City Councilors Charles Yancey, Bruce Bolling, and David Scondras. Shots of the media assembled on City Hall Plaza; of the ANC flag being raised on a flag pole. Marcus Jones reports that there is much excitement surrounding the preparations for the arrival of Nelson Mandela (ANC leader) in Boston. V: Footage of Flynn addressing a gathered crowd. Flynn says that the people of Boston and the United Way will give Mandela a big welcome tomorrow. Shot of preparations being made on the Esplanade for Mandela's visit; of preparations at the Hatch Shell. Jones reports that Mandela's visit is as important as the visit by Pope John Paul II in the 1980s. V: Footage of Maurice Lewis (Public Affairs Director, WBCN radio) being interviewed. Lewis says that the whole city is pulling together to prepare for Mandela's visit; that the city of Boston is rising to the occasion. Shots of a group of people of diverse races walking along a street. Jones reports that more than 4,000 people are expected to take part in a Walk for Freedom tomorrow morning; that the walk will begin in Roxbury and end at the Esplanade. V: Footage of Loraine Sterling (senior, Jeremiah Burke High School) being interviewed. Sterling says that the organizers of the walk wanted to show their support for Mandela. Jones reports that students from the William Trotter Elementary School are rehearsing a prayer for Mandela; that the work was composed two years before. Jones reports that the students will perform for Mandela at a private reception tomorrow evening at the Copley Plaza Hotel. V: Shots of students rehearsing at the Trotter School. Shots of students rehearsing on stage; of a teacher watching the students; of students playing music on water glasses; of students playing percussion instruments; of students on stage. Footage of Priscilla Purvis (fifth grader, William Trotter School) being interviewed. Purvis says that Mandela helps people; that not everyone helps people. Footage of Molly Costello (fourth grader, William Trotter School) being interviewed by Jones. Costello says that Mandela fights for freedom; that he does not give up. Shots of students making posters in preparation for Mandela's visit. Shot of a sign reading, "Mandela, Roxbury loves you." Jones reports that Mandela's name and image appear on souvenir merchandise being sold across the city; that proceeds support Mandela's mission in South Africa. V: Shot of books about Mandela; of a woman putting pamphlets about Mandela on a rack; of T-shirts with Mandela's face; of buttons with Mandela's image. Shot of a worker in the store A Nubian Notion. The worker folds a Mandela T-shirt and puts it in a bag. Footage of Jacob Abdul Khllaq (General Manager, A Nubian Notion) being interviewed in the store. Khllaq says that people recognize the impact that Mandela has had on the world; that people want a piece of history. Footage of an African American man and a small boy standing in front of a poster of Mandela. The man tells the boy that Mandela is a great leader. Footage of Lisa Grant (resident) being interviewed. Grant says that Mandela has sacrificed 27 years of his life. Grant says that Mandela is a hero. Shot of Nelson Mandela and Winnie Mandela (wife of Nelson Mandela) in New York City with David Dinkins (mayor of New York City). This news story is accompanied by intermittent music. 1:05:15: Fields reports that Mandela's years in prison did not diminish his image; that Mandela was released from prison last February; that Mandela emerged with his ideals intact. V: News footage of Mandela in South Africa after his release from prison. Shots of Nelson Mandela and Winnie Mandela (wife of Nelson Mandela). Shots of Mandela at an ANC rally after his release from prison. Footage of Themba Vilakazi (South African exile) being interviewed by Fields. Vilakazi says that he did not predict the release of Nelson Mandela from prison. Carmen Fields reports that Vilakazi left South Africa 25 years ago; that he remembers when Mandela was sent to prison in June of 1964. Fields reports that Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment on charges of high treason and sabotage. V: Black and white footage of a prison truck leaving a South African government building. A crowd stands outside of the building. Shot of a black and white photograph of Mandela surrounded by government officials. Fields reports that Janet Levine (South African exile) has been in the US for six years. V: Footage of Levine being interviewed by Fields. Levine says that Mandela disappeared and the ANC was banned by the South African government. Levine says that she feared that Mandela would die in prison; that she was thrilled when he was released. Shots of Mandela at the demonstration in the South African stadium; of an upraised fist. Fields reports that Mandela is a living legend who embodies the struggle of a nation; that Mandela carries great moral authority. V: Shot of a black and white photo of Mandela before he went to prison. Shot of traffic passing by police in South Africa the late 1950s or early 1960s. Shot of a black and white photo of Mandela among a large group of people; of a black and white portrait of Mandela. Fields reports that Mandela was 25 when he joined the African National Congress (ANC); that Mandela became the ANC's national president six years after he joined the organization. Fields reports that Mandela was banned; that Mandela was arrested by South African police at a protest in Sharpeville in 1960. Fields notes that Sharpeville was the scene of a police attack which left 67 people dead. V: Black and white footage of a black demonstrators at Sharpeville; of two men holding protest signs. Shots of a body lying on the ground; of police dragging a body along the ground. Shots of black men running along a street; of black men waving from a departing bus. Shots of white police officers checking the identity papers of a black man; of a black man lying on the ground with his hands over his eyes; of the body of a black man lying on a street; of another body lying on the ground. Fields reports that Mandela fled to Algiers after his arrest; that Mandela received training in guerilla warfare in Algiers. Fields reports that Mandela no longer believed in 1960 that the fight against apartheid could be non-violent. V: Black and white footage of Mandela delivering a speech in 1961. Mandela says that it is useless to preach peace and nonviolence against a government which engages in savage attacks on its defenseless citizens. Fields reports that Mandela was captured a year later; that Mandela's diary was used as evidence in his nine-month trial for treason. Fields reports that Mandela's diary contained notes on guerilla warfare tactics. V: Black and white shot of men handcuffed together. One man flips through a small notebook. Black and white shots of South African Security Forces outside of a government building; of a crowd in a street; of a prison truck moving along a street. Footage of Levine being interviewed by Fields. Levine says that it was a crime to have a photograph of Mandela; that it was a crime to have read Mandela's writings. Levine says that Winnie Mandela (wife of Nelson Mandela) was also an important figure; that Winnie Mandela was constantly protesting and defying the South African police. Black and white shot of Winnie Mandela in the 1960s. Color footage of Winnie Mandela arguing with white officials in the street. Winnie Mandela is led away. Fields notes that Winnie Mandela maintained her defiance while Nelson Mandela was in prison. V: Audio of Levine saying that Winnie Mandela kept Nelson Mandela's name alive while he was in prison. Shot of a black and white photo of Mandela in prison. Black and white shots of South African Security Forces; of a demonstration in South Africa; of demonstrators. Black and white shot of a park bench bearing a "whites only" sign. Fields reports that the South African government made conditional offers to set Mandela free; that Mandela refused to accept their conditions. V: Footage of Vilikazi being interviewed by Fields. Vilikazi says that Mandela has great appeal; that many would like to associate themselves with Mandela. Footage of Mandela at the demonstration in a South African stadium on February 13, 1990. Mandela addresses the crowd. Mandela raises his fist as he speaks. Fields reports that Mandela is uncompromising; that Mandela has never renounced armed struggle as a means to end apartheid. Fields notes that Mandela advocates peace. V: Footage of Mandela addressing the crowd at the demonstration. Mandela says that the movement will move forward to achieve freedom and justice. Footage of Levine being interviewed by Fields. Levine says that Mandela is no longer a politician; that Mandela has been ennobled. Footage of Vilikazi being interviewed by Fields. Vilikazi says that South Africa has not changed a lot since Mandela was put in jail. Vilikazi says that there are more repressive laws now than in 1964. Vilikazi says that there is still reason to fight. Shots of a large group of people filling up a road in South Africa; of demonstrators at the stadium; of Mandela walking with an upraised fist; of a small black child with his hand held up. 1:10:31: Lydon says that Mandela has no international counterpart; that Mandela is "an unrepentant revolutionary"; that Mandela also symbolizes the possibility of reconciliation. Lydon introduces Aggrey Mbere (Roxbury Community College) and Orlando Patterson (Harvard University) as in-studio guests. Lydon notes that Mbere is a history teacher from South Africa; that Patterson is a sociologist. Lydon says that Mandela is rational, ascetic, and charismatic in a quiet way. Mbere says that Mandela is steeped in African tradition. Lydon asks if Mandela's character was formed before prison. Mbere says that it was; that Mandela has always believed in the glory of Africa's past. Mbere says that Mandela grew up listening to the elders; that the elders were illiterate by Western standards; that the elders fought against colonialism in South Africa. Mbere says that Mandela was sent to school in order to understand the western way of life. Lydon asks about the effects of prison on Mandela's character. Lydon notes that Mandela's mind works in an orderly and disciplined fashion. Mbere says that Robben Island became known as "Mandela university." Mbere says that political prisoners studied under Mandela; that Mandela has a law degree. Mbere says that the leadership of the ANC are all learned. Mbere talks about ANC leaders Govan Mbeki and Walter Sisulu. Mbere says that Sisulu wrote a book while in prison. Mbere says that Mandela combines African tradition with an intellectualism. Patterson compares Mandela to other anti-colonial leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru (leader of India). Patterson agrees that Mandela combines African tradition with western learning. Patterson says that Mandela learned to struggle without fear or hate; that Mandela learned this from Mahatma Gandhi (Indian leader). Patterson says that anti-colonial struggles produce a specific type of leader. Lydon says that African-American leaders tend to be church-based and charismatic. Lydon asks about Mandela's appeal in the US. Mbere compares Mandela to W.E.B. DuBois. Mbere says that Mandela and DuBois are intellectuals. Patterson says that Mandela has made a strong impression on African Americans and white Americans. Patterson talks about Mandela's courage and dignity. Patterson says that Americans need a hero like Mandela; that the US is coming out of a stage of economic greed and spiritual poverty. Patterson says that Mandela embodies selflessness. Patterson says that the fall of communism is forcing the US to take a new look at foreign policy. Patterson says that Mandela and South Africa are important issues in the new US foreign policy. 1:17:50: V: Footage of Mandela addressing an audience in New York City. Jesse Jackson (African American political leader) and others stand behind him. Mandela says that sanctions should be maintained. Mandela says that sanctions were introduced in order to break down apartheid. 1:18:33: Francis and Fields sit in the WGBH studios. Francis says that Mandela wants sanctions to be maintained; that some do not agree with Mandela. Fields reports that Mandela and the ANC do not want any business or institution to do business with South Africa. Fields reports that F.W. de Klerk (President of South Africa) released Mandela in order to send a message that sanctions are painful. Fields reports that the US has refused to lift sanctions so far. 1:19:15: V: Footage of F.W. de Klerk (President of South Africa) speaking to an audience at a press conference. De Klerk expresses his hopes for a "new and just" South Africa. De Klerk shakes hands with Mandela. Dyett reports that de Klerk is hoping that his efforts at establishing a democracy in South Africa will convince the US to lift sanctions. Dyett says that sanctions have crippled the South African economy; that sanctions have helped to bring about a complete change in South African apartheid laws. V: Shot of Mandela speaking at the press conference. Dyett reports that the economy has suffered; that black South Africans have also suffered. Dyett reports that unemployment has increased; that health and welfare programs have been reduced. V: Shot of black South Africans standing in a line on a sidewalk. Shot of black South Africans at a rural medical clinic. Dyett reports that Americans started acting against apartheid in 1970. Dyett notes that Caroline Hunter (former Polaroid employee and member of the Fund for a Free South Africa) complained that Polaroid cameras were being used to produce the green cards issued to black South Africans. V: Footage of Hunter being interviewed by Dyett. Hunter says that she and other activists began to explore Polaroid's activities in South Africa; that they encountered hostility from other employees. Hunter says that the activists called a rally; that the green cards are the "handcuffs which keep the South African populace in check." Footage of Mel King (Community Fellows Program, MIT) being interviewed. King says that it is easy to impact a nation's politics through its economy. King says that it is important to stop supporting companies who do business with the South African government. Dyett reports that King was the first state legislator to introduce a bill which would forbid the state to do business with companies who do business in South Africa. V: Shot of Thomas McGee (Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives) in the chambers of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. Footage of King being interviewed. King says that the Massachusetts State Legislature passed the most meaningful divestiture legislation in the nation in 1983. King says that the bill was supported by a diverse group of legislators. Dyett reports that 35 states and several municipalities have enacted legislation to restrict companies from doing business in South Africa. V: Shots of the Massachusetts State House; of the Massachusetts state flag flying from the flagpole. Dyett notes that Ray Flynn (mayor of Boston) issued an executive order against apartheid during his first year in office. V: Shot of Flynn. Dyett reports that Michael Dukakis (Governor of Massachusetts) curbed state business with nearly 2800 companies. V: Shot of the Massachusetts State House. Footage of Dukakis being interviewed. Dukakis says that the state of Massachusetts will not do business with or invest in companies doing business in South Africa. Dyett reports that Gillette Corporation is based in Boston; that Gillette is one of largest US companies refusing to divest from South Africa. V: Shots of Gillette headquarters. Dyett reports that Gillette officials says that divestment will hurt black South Africans; that the Gillette Corporation has signed the Sullivan Principles. Dyett notes that the Sullivan Principles were authored by Leon Sullivan (minister from Philadelphia); that the principles urge corporations doing business in South Africa to embrace racial equality in the workplace. V: Shot of two African American men exiting the Gillette building. Shot of a sign for Gillette Park. Dyett reports that Gillette boasts of gains in wages, skill training, and promotion to managerial positions. V: Shots of two African American women exiting the Gillette building. Dyett reports that Harvard University has refused to sell all of its stock in corporations doing business in South Africa. V: Shot of Baker Library on the campus of the Harvard University Business School. Footage of Derek Bok (President of Harvard University) speaking at a press conference. Bok says that he remains opposed to total divestiture; that the divestment effort is trying to make the university into an instrument for political change. Bok says that this pressure is detrimental to institutions of higher education. Footage of Robert Zevin (Manager, Calvert Social Investment Fund) being interviewed. Zevin says that no one is burning books or denying peoples' access to health care at Harvard University. Zevin says that the South African government are "thugs and fascists." Zevin says that Harvard would take a different attitude if the university were directly affected by the actions of the South African government. Shot of a sign for the Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration. Dyett reports that large institutions and government can divest large sums of money; that individuals can do the same. Dyett reports that the Zevin manages the Calvert Investment Fund; that the fund tries to invest in companies not doing business in South Africa. V: Shot of a man, a woman and a child standing in front of the Massachusetts State House. Shot of literature for the Calvert Investment Fund. Footage of Zevin being interviewed by Dyett. Zevin says that he has been managing accounts since 1967; that he has never invested in companies doing business in South Africa; that he has had good results. Zevin says that the South African business community has been outspoken in its stance against apartheid; that South African businesses cannot withdraw from the country. Footage of Hunter being interviewed. Hunter says that Americans should do everything they can to support sanctions. Hunter says that US and international sanctions, together with the actions of black South Africans, brought about the release of Mandela. 1:24:59: Dyett introduces in-studio guests Dr. Willard Johnson (MIT) and Joseph LaBonte (Founder, American Business Initiative for a Free South Africa). Dyett notes that Johnson is a founding member of TransAfrica; that LaBonte is a former president of Reebok International. Johnson is wearing a Mandela T-shirt. Dyett asks about the impact of sanctions since 1985. Johnson says that a South African Central Bank analyst has said that sanctions have had an impact of 100 billion rand. Johnson says that $100 billion rand could be the equivalent of $45 billion. Johnson says that 10 billion rand in capital has been withdrawn from the company. Johnson says that the South African government has been affected by the decrease in investments and the loss of trade revenues. Johnson talks about the "multiplier effect" of money which has not circulated through the economy. Dyett asks if the "multiplier effect" has has a detrimental impact on black South Africans. Johnson says that sanctions have had a detrimental effect; that black South Africans were already deprived under the apartheid system. Johnson says that black South Africans were almost outside of the economy before sanctions; that many black South Africans depend on the rural and agricultural sectors. Johnson says that sanctions need to be kept in place; that the period of transition to a new economy needs to be short. Dyett asks LaBonte about his support for "moral capitalism." LaBonte says that the victims of apartheid are never heard from; that US business needs to listen to black South Africans. Dyett asks if US businesses should provide jobs, skills and training. LaBonte says that US businesses should provide jobs, skills and training at the right time. LaBonte says that US businesses would be making a mistake if they returned to South Africa now. LaBonte says that sanctions have been effective in promoting change in South Africa. LaBonte says that the government should not be awarded before they make any real changes. LaBonte says that black South Africans are willing to undergo hardship in the short term in order to affect long-term changes. Dyett asks about African Americans and businessmen who are working to end sanctions. Johnson says that supporters of sanctions need to pressure their elected officials and the president. Johnson says that the president seems to be looking at ways to lessen the effects of sanctions; that popular opinion supports sanctions. LaBonte says that he respects the position of businesses who have stayed in South Africa; that some businesses have good intentions. LaBonte says that companies who stay in South Africa are prolonging the apartheid system. LaBonte says that he has plans to convene the major corporations to talk about sanctions and South Africa. LaBonte says that Mandela spoke to a group of leaders from major corporations today; that Mandela talked about business issues like nationalization. Dyett asks if nationalization is a threat. LaBonte says that nationalization is not a threat; that one-third of the economy is already nationalized. Dyett closes the interview. 1:31:07: V: Footage of Mandela addressing a crowd in Soweto on February 13, 1990. Mandela says that he is happy to return to Soweto; that he is sad about the continuing inhumanity of the apartheid system. Mandela talks about the unemployment, the housing shortage, the education crisis, and crime. Mandela says that the ANC will continue to pursue an armed struggle against the government until apartheid is finished. 1:32:05: Francis reports that Boston has many connections to South Africa; that many native South Africans are fighting apartheid from their homes in Boston. Fields reports that African Americans and black South Africans both find themselves living in appalling conditions in both nations. Fields introduces a report by David Boeri. 1:32:42: V: Footage of Teko Manong (South African exile) walking across a parking lot and entering a building. Footage of Manong working in the kitchen of a restaurant. Boeri reports that Manong is one of the thousands of South Africans who are exiled from their homeland. Boeri reports that Manong has been in the US for 30 years; that Manong grew up in Soweto. V: Shot of a black and white photo of Manong as a boy in Soweto. He stands with two other boys. Footage of Manong working in the restaurant kitchen. Boeri reports that Manong joined the Defiance Campaign and the Potato Boycott in South Africa in the 1950s. V: Footage of Manong being interviewed by Boeri. Manong says that white South African potato farmers would bury the bodies of murdered black South Africans in their fields. Manong says that the potato farmers would brag about the size of their crops and the effectiveness of their "fertilizer." Close-up shot of Manong flipping through his South African passbook. Boeri reports that black South Africans were forced to carry their passbooks at all times. Boeri notes that Manong organized a pass burning campaign in the 1960s; that the campaign resulted in mass arrests. Boeri reports that Manong was jailed without trial; that his promising career as playwright and composer was brought to an end. V: Footage of Manong in the restaurant kitchen. Manong breaks eggs into a large metal pan. Manong pours the eggs into a large pot. Shot of Manong leaving a building and walking across a parking lot. Boeri reports that Manong escaped from prison and journeyed to Ghana. Boeri notes that Manong worked for the South African resistance movement while in Ghana; that Manong met Nelson Mandela (black South African leader). V: Shot of a framed drawing of Mandela. Footage of Manong being interviewed by Boeri. Manong says that Mandela was a great leader; that Mandela helped him personally. Manong says that Mandela would often defend people without money when he was a lawyer; that Mandela was a remarkable man. Shot of Manong's US documents identifying him as a refugee. Boeri reports that Mandela helped Manong get to England; that Manong had hoped to pursue his career in England. Boeri reports that Manong has been politically silenced in South Africa; that Manong has been commercially silenced in the US. V: Shot of a poster for the South African play "Survival." Boeri reports that white South African playwrights have found producers and audiences in the US; that Manong has had little success because he is black and foreign. V: Footage of Manong being interviewed by Boeri. Manong says that his time in exile has been wasted. Boeri asks about the plays he has written while in exile. Manong says that he never should have escaped from prison; that he should have served time in jail for the cause like Mandela did. Boeri reports that Manong has not seen his wife or daughter for 30 years; that he was unable to return to South Africa for the funeral of his mother. V: Shot of a photo of a young black South African woman; of a black and white photo of Manong's parents; of a black and white photo of a gathering of black South Africans. Footage of Manong being interviewed by Boeri. Manong says that he does not want to return to South Africa; that he does not trust white people in South Africa. Footage of Manong working in the restaurant kitchen. Boeri reports that Manong has written a play titled "Excuse Me While I Disappear." Boeri notes that Manong represents the blighted hopes of many talented South Africans. 1:36:16: Fields introduces a report by Meg Vaillancourt. 1:36:36: V: Footage of Nthabiseng Mabuza (South African exile in the US) singing a song about South Africa. Meg Vaillancourt reports that Mabuza was born in South Africa; that her father was a member of the African National Congress (ANC). V: Footage of Mabuza being interviewed by Vaillancourt. Mabuza talks about being shot by South African Security Forces when they raided her home. Vaillancourt reports that Mabuza was 12 years old when South African Security Forces raided her home; that her aunt was killed in the raid; that an uncle was wounded; that her mother barely escaped. V: Shot of a color photo of Mabuza as a young girl. Footage of Anna Mabuza (mother of Nthabiseng Mabuza) being interviewed by Vaillancourt. Anna Mabuza says that Nthabiseng Mabuza is lucky to be alive. Footage of Dr. Jane Schaller (New England Medical Center, Floating Hospital) describing Nthabiseng Mabuza's injuries. Schaller says that Nthabiseng Mabuza was shot in the abdomen and in the back. Schaller says that Mabuza is paralyzed from the chest down. Shot of Nthabiseng Mabuza maneuvering herself into her wheelchair. Vaillancourt reports that the Fund for a Free South Africa (charity) has helped Nthabiseng Mabuza come to Boston; that Nthabiseng Mabuza is receiving free medical care at the Floating Hospital. Vaillancourt reports that Nthabiseng Mabuza is teaching local students about life under apartheid. V: Footage of Nthabiseng Mabuza being interviewed by Vaillancourt. Nthabiseng Mabuza talks about the cruel treatment of an eight-year old boy at the hands of the South African government. Nthabiseng Mabuza says that children and adults are imprisoned and killed by the South African government. Footage from January of 1990 of Nthabiseng Mabuza working with her physical therapist. Vaillancourt reports that Nthabiseng Mabuza has physical therapy twice a week; that doctors are doing what they can for her. Vaillancourt reports that Nthabiseng Mabuza keeps her spirits up; that she has responded to her trials with courage and dignity. V: Footage of Nthabiseng Mabuza in a wheelchair. She wheels herself through the house and into a room. Audio of "I'm Forever Your Girl" by Paula Abdul plays in the background. Shot of Nthabiseng Mabuza in her bedroom. Footage of Nthabiseng Mabuza being interviewed by Vaillancourt. Vaillancourt asks Nthabiseng Mabuza if she is bitter. Nthabiseng Mabuza says that she gets angry sometimes; that she is not bitter. Nthabiseng Mabuza says that South African citizens must work toward achieving a democratic society. Vaillancourt reports that Nthabiseng Mabuza will meet Nelson Mandela (ANC leader) tomorrow; that Nthabiseng Mabuza will talk to Madison Park High School students about the struggle against apartheid; that Nthabiseng Mabuza will sing a welcome for Mandela. V: Shot of Nthabiseng Mabuza on her bed. She takes off her shoes and begins to study a notebook. Audio of Nthabiseng Mabuza singing a song. Audio of Nthabiseng Mabuza saying that she was not yet born when Mandela went to prison; that today's youth will be tomorrow's leaders. Footage of Nthabiseng Mabuza singing her welcome for Mandela. 1:40:08: Francis reports that Mandela inspired many to become activists; that Mandela inspired Andrew Jones (Boston filmmaker) to take action in Boston's neighborhoods. 1:40:22: V: Footage of Andrew Jones (filmmaker) working on a computer in an editing suite. Jones talks to a colleague about making an edit. Shots of his colleague who sits at an editing station. Francis reports that Jones has recently returned from South Africa where he shot a four-part series on South Africa for Black Entertainment Television (BET). Francis reports that the timing is good for Jones' series; that Mandela's visit to the US will spark interest in the series. V: Footage of Jones being interviewed by Francis. Francis asks about the mood in South Africa since Mandela's release. Jones says that the mood is mixed; that Mandela is a very popular figure. Jones says that Mandela managed to keep attention focused on his cause while in prison. Jones notes that many black South Africans have been detained. Footage from Maverick Media of a black South African talking about being detained and tortured by South African Security Forces. Footage from Maverick Media of Jones standing in front of a group of black South Africans who are celebrating the release of Mandela. Francis reports that Jones came up with the proposal to form a new city from the greater Roxbury neighborhoods; that the proposed new city was to be called Mandela, Massachusetts. Francis notes that Jones was praised and criticized for the proposal. V: Footage from the Phil Donahue show from October 30, 1986. African American community leaders Andrew Jones (Greater Roxbury Incorporation Project), Mel King (community activist), Bruce Bolling (President, Boston City Council) and Reverend Charles Stith (Union United Methodist Church) are guests on the show. Jones says that land control is the issue driving the proposed city of Mandela; that racial issues are not the driving force behind the proposal. Jones says that 95% of the African American residents are confined to one area of Boston. Jones says that white residents are welcome in the African American neighborhoods; that African Americans cannot walk the streets of many white neighborhoods. The crowd applauds. Jones says that Bolling is unable to walk the streets of the white neighborhoods. Footage of Jones being interviewed by Francis. Francis asks Jones how his trip to South Africa changed his perspective on the country. Jones says that the struggle against apartheid is larger than Mandela; that Mandela knows that he is just a part of the larger struggle. Jones says that South Africa and the US are very similar. Jones says that the only difference between the US and South Africa is that white people are the majority in the US. Shots of an elderly white couple walking in a park; of a young black couple sitting on a park bench. Shots of black shoppers on a commercial street. Jones says that the black townships surround the white communities in South Africa; that the white communities surround the black ghettoes in the US. V: Shots of a black township in South Africa; of black South Africans boarding a crowded train in South Africa. Jones says that blacks in South Africa and African Americans both live in substandard conditions; that blacks in both countries go home to black areas at the end of the day. Shot of black South African men getting into a van on a commercial street. 1:44:31: Francis reports that Mandela arrived in the US as a symbol long before he visited the US in person. 1:44:41: V: Shot of African American residents outside of the Mandela apartment complex in Roxbury. Francis reports that the name Mandela is synonymous with the fight for equality. V: Shots of an urban landscape; of black South Africans celebrating as they stand in the road; of a cliff rising up from the sea. Audio of a hip-hop song plays. Francis says that many artists express their ideas about South Africa through art. V: Shot of the painting "So-we-too" by Nelson Stevens. Footage of Edmund Barry Gaither (Museum of the National Center of Afro-American Artists) being interviewed on the grounds of the Center. Gaither says that many works of art about South Africa have been created in the past twenty years. Gaither says that a group of artists within the National Conference of Artists each decided to create a work on the theme of Soweto. Gaither says that the artists turned the work Soweto into "So we too"; that the artists saw parallels between the experience of black South Africans and African Americans. Shots of the painting "So-we-too" by Nelson Stevens. Gaither says that Kenneth Falana (artist) created a series of works about popular resistance to apartheid. Shots of a painting called "Freedom's Cry" by Kenneth Falana. Gaither says that African American artists see Mandela as an untarnished symbol; that African American artists see parallels between the experiences of African Americans and black South Africans. Francis says that many questioned the choice of the name Mandela for a proposed new city to be formed from the neighborhoods of greater Roxbury. V: Shot of a map of the boundaries of the proposed city. Footage of Sadiki Kambon (Project FATE) being interviewed by Francis. Kambon says that Mandela is an international hero; that Mandela is a symbol of the struggle against injustice; that this struggle is worldwide. Shot of a group of black protesters. Kambon says that Mandela is an inspiration for Africans across the world. Kambon says that he hopes Mandela's visit will renew the commitment of supporters for the proposed city. Shot of a poster of Mandela. 1:47:37: Lydon and Dyett sit in the WGBH studio. Dyett introduces in-studio guests Margaret Burnham (Fund for a Free South Africa) and Henry Hampton (Executive Producer, "Eyes on the Prize"). Dyett notes that Burnham also serves as a judge. Lydon asks if Mandela's visit has changed the racial agenda in this country. Burnham says that Mandela's visit has raised people's spirits; that Mandela's struggle makes it clear that anything is possible. Burnham notes that Mandela's agenda is the liberation of black South Africans. Burnham notes that the problems and concerns of African Americans are not Mandela's primary concern. Hampton says that he has enjoyed Mandela's visit because he has learned about Mandela as a man. Hampton says that Mandela is regal, intelligent, and humane. Hampton says that many African Americans have someone in their family with those qualities; that white Americans may have never been exposed to a black man with those qualities. Hampton says that Mandela's visit makes people think about the tragedy of imprisonment; that many young African American men are currently in prison. Dyett asks if the roles of Americans have changed with Mandela's visit. Burnham says that the roles of American's have not changed; that the struggle against apartheid has not changed; that the struggle continues. Burnham says that Americans may be inspired to embrace their roles in the struggle. Hampton says that he is struck by Mandela's ability to focus on the heart of an issue. Hampton notes that Mandela avoids the trap of cynicism; that Mandela sticks to his vision; that Mandela has been unswayed by the media and politicians during his visit. Hampton says that Mandela is a great leader. Lydon notes that Jesse Jackson (African American political leader) seems to be studying Mandela during his visit to the US. Hampton says that Jackson has not tried to compete with Mandela; that Jackson has let Mandela have the spotlight. Hampton says that Mandela has a lot to teach all of us; that Jackson is a good student. Dyett asks how to keep people involved in the struggle after Mandela is gone. Burnham says that Mandela's presence renews people's sense of commitment to equal rights. Burnham says that Mandela's visit is important for Boston's young people; that the young people are witnessing a piece of history. Burnham says that the March on Washington in 1963 was also a piece of history witnessed by young people. Hampton says that the organizers of Mandela's visit have worked very hard; that Mandela's visit is like a presidential visit; that the visit has brought people together. Lydon asks about the legacy of Mandela's visit. Hampton says that young people will see an image of a black man who stands with the world leaders and commands respect. Hampton says that Mandela is a powerful symbol. Dyett thanks Hampton and Burnham. 1:55:03: V: Footage of Mandela addressing an audience in Harlem on June 21, 1990. Mandela says that black South Africans have been inspired by African American civil rights leaders including W.E.B. DuBois, Sojourner Truth, Paul Robeson, Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr., Marcus Garvey, Adam Clayton Powell, and Malcolm X. Mandela gives credit to the resistance of the South African people and the solidarity of people throughout the world. 1:56:01: Lydon, Francis, Fields, and Dyett sit in the WGBH studios. Francis, Dyett, and Lydon give information about the schedule of events for Mandela's visit to Boston on the following day. Fields and Lydon close the show. V: Shots of Mandela; of people cheering for Mandela in the US; of two African American girls singing the ANC anthem. Footage of a young African American man talking about the importance of freedom and Mandela's struggle. Shots of students making posters in preparation for Mandela's visit. Audio of Nthabiseng Mabuza (South African exile) talking about Mandela's struggle. Footage of a young white woman talking about the importance of Mandela's struggle. Footage of a young African American man talking about Mandela as a symbol of freedom. Shot of Walter Sisulu (black South African leader). Footage of an African American female student saying that Mandela is the most important person to visit Boston in her memory. Footage of an African American female student saying that Mandela's visit is exciting. Shots of black South Africans celebrating in the streets. Footage of a young African American female student saying that she is happy that Mandela is alive. Credits roll over images of Boston schoolchildren preparing for Mandela's visit. Shots of photos of Mandela throughout his life. Footage of people celebrating the release of Mandela; of Mandela. WGBH logo and promotion.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 06/22/1990
Description: Hope Kelly reports that Democratic candidates for governor Evelyn Murphy and Francis Bellotti talked about civil rights issues at the Boston Globe Forum on Civil Rights. While the candidates agreed on most of the issues, they disagreed about the death penalty. Murphy and Bellotti talk about minority set-asides, development in minority communities, and the civil rights bill in the state legislature. They also discuss their positions on death penalty. Bellotti talks about his participation in the civil rights movement in the 1960s. Reporters look bored, some reporters read the newspaper while the candidates talk. Kelly reports that many voters are not familiar with the civil rights records of either candidate. Interviews with people on the street, none of whom believe that either candidate has shown strong leadership in the area of civil rights.
1:00:10: Visual: Footage of Evelyn Murphy (Democratic candidate for governor of Massachusetts) and Francis Bellotti (Democratic candidate for governor of Massachusetts) at the Boston Globe Forum on Civil Rights. A moderator introduces the forum. Murphy and Bellotti sit together at a table. Panelists sit at tables adjacent to the candidates. Members of the media are at the back of the room. Hope Kelly reports that there was no debate at the Boston Globe Forum on Civil Rights this morning; that the candidates agree on the issues. V: Footage of Murpy speaking at the Forum. Murphy says that she believes in minority set-aside rules; that she would like to see the program expanded. Shots of members of the media sitting on a couch to one side of the room. Kelly says that the forum's atmosphere was low-key. V: Shots of Bellotti; of two reporters reading the newspaper as Murphy speaks. Shots of two men conferring as Murphy speaks; of another reporter reading the newspaper. Shot of a man playing with his pen; of another man looking up at the ceiling. Shot of the moderator with his chin cupped in his hand. Audio of Murphy talking about minority businesses. Kelly notes that both candidates got equal time at the forum. V: Footage of Bellotti talking about development in minority communities. Kelly reports that both candidates say that they support the same agenda; that both candidates support the civil rights bill before the US Congress; that both candidates support the gay rights bill in the state legislature. V: Shot of Murphy speaking at the forum. Kelly reports that both candidates support minority set-aside programs; that both candidates will try to improve access for all. V: Shots of panelists at the forum. Kelly reports that Murphy brought up the only difference between the two candidates; that the difference was highlighted in the days following the murder of Carol Stuart (resident of Reading, Massachusetts). V: Footage of Murphy speaking at the forum. Murphy says that her opponents talked about their support of the death penalty in the days following the Stuart murder. Murphy says that she has always been an opponent of the death penalty; that Bellotti had threatened to "pull the switch." Footage of Bellotti speaking at the forum. Bellotti says that he was not statesmanlike when he talked about pulling "the switch." Bellotti says that he has always been honest about his position on the death penalty. Bellotti says that he would never lobby for the death penalty. Kelly reports that the candidates talked about their past records; that the candidates talked about how they would govern the state. V: Footage of Bellotti speaking at the forum. Bellotti says that he marched with Martin Luther King Jr. (civil rights leader) in 1965; that people threw rocks at the marchers. Shots of Bellotti and Murphy at the forum. Kelly reports that both candidates boasted of their records on civil rights. Kelly notes that many voters are not familiar with the civil rights records of either candidate. V: Footage of an African American man being interviewed by Kelly outside of a post office. Kelly asks if the man is familiar with the civil rights records of Murphy or Bellotti. The man says that he cannot think of anything that either candidate has done in the area of civil rights. Footage of a white man being interviewed by Kelly. Kelly asks the man to name some local civil rights leaders. The man responds that she has posed a tough question. Footage of an African American man being interviewed by Kelly. The man cannot come up with an answer to Kelly's question about local civil rights leaders. Footage of a white man being interviewed by Kelly. The man says that he would not consider Bellotti to be a leader in the area of civil rights. Footage of an African American woman being interviewed by Kelly. Kelly asks the woman if she knew that Bellotti grew up in Roxbury. The woman says that she never knew that fact. Shot of the candidates and panelists rising at the end of the forum.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 08/07/1990
Description: Marcus Jones reports that anti-war activists protested across the nation to rally public opinion against the use of force in the Persian Gulf, including in downtown Boston. Jesse Jackson visited MIT to speak out against going to war in the Middle East on the birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. Jones notes that the MIT Initiative for Peace in the Middle East brought Jackson to the campus. Jackson says that the US must not rush to war on January 15. Interviews with MIT graduate students Corrie Lathan and Steve Penn, who oppose the war. Interview with Jesse Jackson, who says that the US and Iraq should negotiate because war is inevitable if talking is impossible. Jones' report includes footage from Inside Edition of Jackson in Iraq. Following the edited story is additional b-roll of anti-war demonstrations and of Jackson at MIT talking about Martin Luther King, Jr.
1:00:36: Visual: Footage of anti-war protesters on Winter Street in downtown Boston. The protesters carry signs protesting the Gulf War. They chant together, "We remember Vietnam. We won't go." Shot of two police officers standing in front of a building. Marcus Jones reports that a group of anti-war protesters demonstrated outside of the Army recruiting headquarters in Boston. V: Shot of a protesters carrying a sign reading, "U.S. Troops out of the Gulf." The protesters chant, "We won't fight for Texaco." Shot of a protester handing out leaflets. Jones reports that anti-war activists took to the streets across the country today; that the protesters are trying to rally public opinion against the use of force in the Persian Gulf. V: Shot of an older white woman wearing a sign around her neck. The sign reads, "Bring our troops home." Shot of two white children standing among the protesters. Jones reports that Jesse Jackson (African American political leader) visited MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) tonight; that the members of the MIT Initiative for Peace in the Middle East brought Jackson to the campus. Jones reports that Jackson spoke out against going to war in the Middle East on the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr. (civil rights activist). V: Shots of Jackson greeting an MIT student; of Jackson greeting students as he walks to the podium. Shots of students in the audience. Footage of Jackson addressing the students. Jackson says that the US must not rush to war on January 15. Jackson says that efforts toward peace must be made on King's birthday. Footage of Corrie Lathan (MIT graduate student) being interviewed. Lathan says that she is opposed to the war; that the situation should be resolved in a non-violent manner. Footage of Steve Penn (MIT graduate student) being interviewed by Jones. Penn says that decision-makers in the US understand pressure; that the voice of the people must speak out against the war. Jones reports that Jackson's call for restraint may reflect a change in his thinking. Jones notes that Jackson met with Saddam Hussein (Iraqi leader) last year. Jones reports that Jackson said last year that war would be inevitable if talking proved impossible. V: Footage from Inside Edition of Jackson entering a building in Iraq; of Jackson speaking to Hussein. Jones questions whether Jackson has changed his position. V: Footage of Jackson speaking at MIT. Jones asks Jackson if he has changed his position. Jackson says that he has kept the same position. Jackson says that war is inevitable if talking is impossible. Jackson says that the US and Iraq should "talk"; that the two countries must choose negotiation over confrontation. The audience applauds for Jackson as he walks away from the podium.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 01/14/1991
Description: Story opens with clips of civilians commenting on near possibility of war. Clip of Martin Luther King Jr. giving a sermon. Boston University Martin Luther King Professor of Ethics John Cartwright recalls Martin Luther King's legacy of non violence and pacifism. Cartwright explains the sad irony of imminent Persian Gulf war on King's birthday. Clip of King speaking about Vienam on April 15, 1967 at anti-Vietnam War march in New York City. Brief clip of King speaking at different rally. Ends with Cartwright talking about discussion of war through the context of King's work.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 01/15/1991
Description: Hope Kelly reports that students from the Boston University School of Theology held a ceremony to celebrate the life of Martin Luther King, Jr. She notes that attendees at the gathering also prayed for peace in the Persian Gulf. Interviews with BU Theology students Virgil Hammett, Leon Chestnut, Jessica Davis, and Roxie Coicou. The students talk about civil rights, the legacy of King, and their desire for a peaceful resolution to the Persian Gulf Crisis. Chestnut, Hammett and Davis address the gathered students and lead prayers to end the war. This edition of the Ten O'Clock News also included the following item: Carmen Fields reports on African American soldiers in the Persian Gulf War
1:00:16: Visual: Footage of students from the Boston University School of Theology walking on the Boston University (BU) campus at dusk. The students sing, "We Shall Overcome." The students gather together and link arms near the Martin Luther King Memorial statue near Marsh Chapel. Shots of the students. Hope Kelly reports that students at the BU School of Theology were celebrating the life of Martin Luther King Jr. (civil rights activist); that the celebration of peace is happening while the nation is at war. V: Footage of Virgil Hammett (student, BU School of Theology) being interviewed. Hammett says that he sees the connection that King saw between civil rights and the Vietnam War. Hammett says that some US soldiers in Kuwait are fighting for rights that they do not possess at home. Footage of Leon Chestnut (student, BU School of Theology) being interviewed. Chestnut says that charity begins at home. Chestnut says that the US must set its own house in order before going off to war. Footage of Jessica Davis (student, BU School of Theology) being interviewed. Davis says that a lot of money is spent on weapons; that the government is not providing for the needs of the people. Kelly reports that Davis is a divinity student who is studying to be a minister. Kelly notes that Chestnut is a Hebrew Bible scholar and a preacher. V: Shot of Chestnut and Davis standing in a chapel. Footage of Chestnut addressing the gathering of divinity students on the BU campus. Chestnut quotes from a psalm. Footage of Chestnut being interviewed. Chestnut talks about the importance of having faith. Footage of Chestnut addressing the gathering of divinity students. Chestnut talks about faith. Footage of Roxie Coicou (student, BU School of Theology) being interviewed. Coicou says that people need to pray and to talk about the war. Kelly reports that Coicou was born in 1968, which was the year that King was assassinated. V: Footage of Davis being interviewed. Davis talks about seeing King speak when she was a little girl. Davis says that society's problems have changed little since the 1960s. Footage of Coicou being interviewed. Coicou says that politics will continue; that people need to pray. Shot of BU students at the gathering. Footage of Hammett addressing the gathering. Hammett prays for love and understanding. Hammett prays for the realization of King's goals. Footage of Davis addressing the gathering. Davis prays for an end to the war. Shots of the students at the gathering.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 01/21/1991
Description: Carmen Fields reports on the history and present activities of the Ku Klux Klan. Fields notes that recent statistics show an increase in hate crimes. She adds that membership in the Ku Klux Klan has increased. Fields' report includes footage from Eyes on the Prize of an interview with Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth, footage of Ku Klux Klan ceremonies and graphic shots of lynching victims. Fields talks about murders and lynchings by the Klan. She reports that the Ku Klux Klan turned out in large numbers to stop a march honoring Martin Luther King, Jr. in Forsythe County, Georgia. Fields notes that Louisiana State Rep. David Duke is a former Ku Klux Klan member, who has founded a new white advocacy group. Fields' report is accompanied by footage of Duke in the studios of WHDH radio and by footage from A Walk Through the Twentieth Century with Bill Moyers. Fields' report includes footage of Sterling Brown reading a poem about a lynching. This edition of the Ten O'Clock News also included the following items: Controversy surrounds David Duke's visit to Boston and Avi Nelson and Dianne Wilkerson talk about quotas and civil rights
1:00:07: Visual: Footage of Ku Klux Klan members at a ceremony. The members wear white robes and hoods. The members walk in a circle and carry torches. The members light a cross on fire and begin to cheer. Carmen Fields reports that the Ku Klux Klan brought David Duke (Louisiana State Representative) into prominence. Fields reports that the Ku Klux Klan began in the 1860s after Abraham Lincoln (former US president) freed the slaves. Fields notes that Klan members hated Jews, Catholics, and especially African Americans. V: Footage from Eyes on the Prize of the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth being interviewed. Shuttlesworth says that no one knows how many African Americans have been killed because of their race in our society. Footage of Klan members standing in a circle around a burning cross. Fields reports that the Klan murdered African Americans; that the Klan has distorted the symbol of the Christian cross by associating it with violence and terror. V: Shot of a burning cross toppling over. Audio of Klan members cheering. Footage from A Walk Through the Twentieth Century with Bill Moyers. A woman is interviewed. The woman says that she would watch the newspaper to find out who had been lynched the night before and where the lynching took place. Fields reports that nearly 300 people were murdered by the Klan in the 1920s; that the murders continued through the 1960s. Fields reports that the NAACP began calling for anti-lynching legislation in the 1940s; that no congress ever passed a law. V: Shots of a black and white photograph of a group of men watching a body burn; of a charred body hanging from a tree; of white men surrounding the body of an African American man hanging from a tree. Shots of a black and white photograph of the bodies of two African American men hanging from trees; of a the body of a handcuffed African American man hanging from a tree. Fields reports that the Ku Klux Klan seemed to die out in the 1960s and 1970s; that the Ku Klux Klan turned out in large numbers to stop a march honoring Martin Luther King Jr. (civil rights leader) in Forsythe County, Georgia. Fields reports that statistics show an increase in hate crimes; that membership in the Ku Klux Klan has increased. V: Shot of hooded and robed Klan members at a cross-burning ceremony. White people in civilian clothes stand behind them. Shots of cars parked on a street in a rural area. Shot of two African American protesters in front of a group of protesters in Forsythe County, Georgia. Shots of Klan members at a cross-burning ceremony; of a wizard of the Klan at a cross-burning ceremony. Footage of David Duke speaking into a broadcaster's microphone in the studios of WHDH radio. Duke says that Americans are not shallow; that they are wise. Fields reports that Duke is a former grand wizard of the Ku Klux Klan; that Duke has founded a new white advocacy group. Fields reports that Duke has not been able to explain away his connection to the Ku Klux Klan. V: Shot of Duke at WHDH. Shot of Sterling Brown (poet). Shots of Klan members at a cross-burning ceremony. Fields notes that Brown's best friend was lynched by the Klan. V: Footage from A Walk Through the Twentieth Century with Bill Moyers. Brown reads a poem about the lynching of his friend.
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 03/28/1991
Description: Meg Vaillancourt reports on the annual Black/Jewish Seder Supper at the Union United Methodist Church. Interviews with Leonard Zakim from the Anti-Defamation League, Charles Stith from the Union United Methodist Church, and Eric Karp from the Temple Ohabei Shalom about the importance of the Black/Jewish Seder supper. Zakim says that the supper celebrates the continuing struggle for freedom and civil rights on the part of both communities. Stith talks about the kinship between the two communities. Karp says that both communities have struggled against oppression. Interviews with attendees about the significance of the supper. Vaillancourt notes that this year's Seder supper falls on the eve of the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. This edition of the Ten O'Clock News also included the following item: James Williams protests lack of minority faculty at MIT
1:00:07: Visual: Shot of the steeple of the Union United Methodist Church at dusk. Shots of the annual Black/Jewish Seder supper at the Union United Methodist Church. Shot of an African American woman and a white man speaking at the supper. A choir sings, "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot." Meg Vaillancourt reports that a group of local African Americans and Jews celebrated the Seder. V: Footage of Leonard Zakim (Anti-Defamation League) being interviewed by Vaillancourt. Zakim says that the supper celebrates the continuing struggle for freedom and civil rights. Footage of Charles Stith (Union United Methodist Church being interviewed. Stith says that society is polarized along racial lines; that the supper is an celebrates efforts to promote peaceful coexistence between groups of people. Stith says that the supper affirms the goals of Martin Luther King Jr. (civil rights leader). Vaillancourt reports that attendees gathered at the Union United Methodist Church) for the eleventh Black/Jewish Seder. V: Shots of attendees reading from a religious text. The attendees hold pieces of matzoh in their hands. Footage of Eric Karp (Temple Ohabei Shalom) being interviewed. Karp says that the Seder celebrates the deliverance of the Jewish people from oppression; that the African American community has fought a long battle against oppression. Karp says that the two communities can learn from one another. Footage of an African American woman being interviewed at the supper. The woman says that she is attending her first Seder; that the two communities are brought together through their belief in God. Footage of an older Jewish woman being interviewed by Vaillancourt. Vaillancourt asks what the two communities have in common. The woman says that the two communities share a lot of things including prejudice and hard times. Footage of an older African American woman being interviewed by Vaillancourt. The woman says that African Americans and Jews are treated the same way. Footage of a young Jewish boy being interviewed. The boy says that "prejudice stinks." Shots of attendees at the supper. Vaillancourt reports that the ceremony is Jewish; that the date is important to those involved in the civil rights struggle. Vaillancourt notes that King gave his last speech twenty-three years ago tonight; that King was murdered in Memphis on the following day. Vaillancourt stands outside of the room where the supper is held. Vaillancourt reports that the Passover meal is symbolic of the exodus from Egypt by the Israelites after 400 years of slavery. V: Footage of Stith being interviewed. Stith says that enslaved African Americans identified with the struggle of Moses and the people of Israel. Stith says that there is a theological kinship between the two communities. Footage from the Seder supper. A choir sings, "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot."
Collection: Ten O'Clock News
Date Created: 04/03/1991